Myeloma risk

Preventable cases

Myeloma cases are preventable, UK, 2015

 

The estimated lifetime risk of being diagnosed with myeloma is 1 in 83 (1%) for males, and 1 in 116 (less than 1%) for females born after 1960 in the UK.[1]

These figures have been calculated on the assumption that the possibility of having more than one diagnosis of myeloma over the course of a lifetime is very low (‘Current Probability’ method).[2]

References

  1. Lifetime risk estimates calculated by the Statistical Information Team at Cancer Research UK. Based on Office for National Statistics (ONS) 2016-based Life expectancies and population projections. Accessed December 2017, and Smittenaar CR, Petersen KA, Stewart K, Moitt N. Cancer Incidence and Mortality Projections in the UK Until 2035. Brit J Cancer 2016. 
  2. Esteve J, Benhamou E and Raymond L. Descriptive epidemiology. IARC Scientific Publications No.128, Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer, pp 67-68 1994. 

About this data

Data is for UK, past and projected cancer incidence and mortality and all-cause mortality rates for those born in 1961, ICD-10 C90.

The calculations used past and projected cancer incidence and mortality and all-cause mortality rates for those born in 1961 to project risk over the lifetime of those born in 1961 (cohort method).[1] Projections are based on observed incidence and mortality rates and therefore implicitly include changes in cancer risk factors, diagnosis and treatment.

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14% of myeloma cases in the UK are preventable.[1]

Myeloma is associated with a number of risk factors.[2-4]

Myeloma Risk Factors

Increases risk ('sufficient' or 'convincing' evidence) May increase risk ('limited' or 'probable' evidence) Decreases risk ('sufficient' or 'convincing' evidence) May decrease risk ('limited' or 'probable' evidence)
  • -Body fatness
  • Benzene
  • Ethylene oxide
  • X-radiation, gamma radiation
- -

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classification. World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) classification does not include myeloma because the evidence is very limited. Find out more about IARC and WCRF/AICR classifications.

See also

Want to generate bespoke preventable cancers stats statements? Download our interactive statement generator.

Find out more about the definitions and evidence for this data

Learn how attributable risk is calculated

References

  1. Brown KF, Rumgay H, Dunlop C, et al. The fraction of cancer attributable to known risk factors in England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and the UK overall in 2015. British Journal of Cancer 2018.
  2. International Agency for Research on Cancer. List of Classifications by cancer sites with sufficient or limited evidence in humans, Volumes 1 to 122. Accessed October 2018.
  3. Lauby-Secretan B, Scoccianti C, Loomis D, et al. Body Fatness and Cancer--Viewpoint of the IARC Working Group. N Engl J Med. 2016 Aug 25;375(8):794-8.
  4. World Cancer Research Fund / American Institute for Cancer Research. Continuous Update Project Findings & Reports. Accessed October 2018.
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International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies the role of this risk factor in cancer development.[1] 14% of myeloma cases in the UK are caused by overweight and obesity.[2]

Myeloma risk is 12% higher per 5-unit body mass index (BMI) increment, a meta-analysis showed.[3] however, the association may be limited to males.[4]

Obese people may produce more of the protein interleukin-6 (IL-6), affecting proliferation and development of normal and malignant plasma cells.[5]

UK portrait version shown here. Country versions, cancers caused by other risk factors, and landscape formats are available for free from our cancer risk publications.

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Myeloma risk is 2.3 times higher in people with a first-degree relative (parent, sibling or child) with myeloma compared with the general population, a cohort study showed.[1]

This may be due to shared genetic or environmental factors , or a combination of these.

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Pernicious anemia

Myeloma risk is 50% higher in people with pernicious anaemia, versus those without the disease, a systematic review showed.[1] Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) - a precursor for myeloma risk is 67% higher in people with pernicious anaemia.[1]

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Acknowledgements

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