A trial looking at lenalidomide, bortezomib and vorinostat for myeloma (Myeloma XI – non intensive group)

Cancer type:

Blood cancers




Phase 3

This trial looked at lenalidomide, bortezomib and vorinostat for people having non intensive treatment for newly diagnosed myeloma. It was supported by Cancer Research UK.

More about this trial

When this trial was done, doctors often treated newly diagnosed myeloma with a combination of drugs such as cyclophosphamide, thalidomide and dexamethasone.

This trial looked at these drugs alongside other treatments at various points, to see if they could help stop myeloma coming back.

There were two groups in this trial – the intensive group and the non intensive group. The people taking part were put into one of the two groups depending on how fit and well they were. Treatment for both groups included these 3 stages:

  • induction
  • consolidation
  • maintenance

This information is about the non intensive group. We have separate information about the intensive group. The trial treatments for the non intensive group were lenalidomide, bortezomib and vorinostat.

The people taking part were put into 1 of 2 groups for induction treatment at random:

  • group 1 had cyclophosphamide, dexamethasone and thalidomide
  • group 2 had cyclophosphamide, dexamethasone and lenalidomide

What they had next depended on how well their induction treatment worked. They either had:

  • no consolidation treatment
  • cyclophosphamide, dexamethasone and bortezomib

People whose treatment hadn’t worked then left the trial to have other treatments. People whose treatment had worked were put into one of these 3 groups at random:

  • no maintenance treatment
  • lenalidomide alone
  • lenalidomide with vorinostat

The main aims of this trial were to see whether:

  • lenalidomide or thalidomide work better as part of induction treatment
  • bortezomib improves consolidation treatment
  • vorinostat improves maintenance treatment
  • the research team can identify differences in cells or proteins which might help predict how well treatment will work in different people

Summary of results

There are several parts to this trial, and the various parts have been analysed and published separately. Here is a summary of what the results have shown so far.

The combination of cyclophosphamide, dexamethasone and lenalidomide worked better than cyclophosphamide, dexamethasone and thalidomide as induction treatment.

Those who had lenalidomide as part of maintenance treatment also did better than those who didn’t. The research team concluded that lenalidomide should be part of maintenance treatment for everyone with myeloma.

Adding bortezomib to consolidation treatment increased the time it took for myeloma to start growing again.

Minimal Residual Disease (MRD)
MRD means the number of myeloma cells left after treatment. The research team looked at the level of MRD after induction treatment. The results showed that people with no MRD (this is called being MRD negative) did better at the end of treatment than those who were MRD positive.

Genetic analysis
The research team looked at the genes of people taking part, to try and find links between genetic changes and how well treatment works. This work is still ongoing. But so far they have found a couple of changes in specific genes such as PAX4 and CD226, which may be useful in deciding who is most likely to benefit from treatment.

Predicting how well treatment will work
The research team used information about people in this trial to come up with what they call a predictive prognostic score. It combines information on the stage of their myeloma, how fit and well they are, their age and the level of a protein called CRP in their blood. It needs more work to make sure it is accurate before it can be widely used.

The results of this trial also showed that the treatment people need should depend on how fit and well they are, rather than how old they are.

Future results
Some of the people taking part in this trial are still having treatment and follow up appointments. The research team plan to analyse and publish more results in future. We hope to update this page once this information is available.

We have based this summary on information from the research team. The information they sent us has been reviewed by independent specialists (peer reviewed Open a glossary item) and published in a medical journal. The figures we quote above were provided by the trial team who did the research. We have not analysed the data ourselves.

Recruitment start:

Recruitment end:

How to join a clinical trial

Please note: In order to join a trial you will need to discuss it with your doctor, unless otherwise specified.

Please note - unless we state otherwise in the summary, you need to talk to your doctor about joining a trial.

Chief Investigator

Professor Graham Jackson

Supported by

Cancer Research UK
Experimental Cancer Medicine Centre (ECMC)
NIHR Clinical Research Network: Cancer
University of Leeds

Other information

This is Cancer Research UK trial number CRUK/09/014.

Questions about cancer? Contact our information nurses

Freephone 0808 800 4040

Last review date

CRUK internal database number:


Please note - unless we state otherwise in the summary, you need to talk to your doctor about joining a trial.

Around 1 in 5 people take part in clinical trials

3 phases of trials

Around 1 in 5 people diagnosed with cancer in the UK take part in a clinical trial.

Last reviewed:

Rate this page:

No votes yet
Thank you!
We've recently made some changes to the site, tell us what you think