Kidney cancer incidence statistics

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Cases

New cases of kidney cancer, 2015-2017, UK.

 

Proportion of all cases

Percentage kidney cancer is of total cancer cases, 2015-2017, UK

 

Age

Peak rate of kidney cancer cases, 2015-2017, UK

Trend over time

Change in kidney cancer incidence rates since the early 1990s, UK

 

Kidney cancer is the 7th most common cancer in the UK, accounting for 4% of all new cancer cases (2017).[1-4]

In females in the UK, kidney cancer is the 10th most common cancer (3% of all new female cancer cases). In males in the UK, it is the 6th most common cancer (4% of all new male cancer cases).

38% of kidney cancer cases in the UK are in females, and 62% are in males.

Kidney cancer incidence rates (European age-standardised (AS) rates Open a glossary item) for persons are significantly higher than the UK average in Northern Ireland, and similar to the UK average in all other UK constituent countries.

Kidney Cancer (C64-C66,C68), Number of New Cases, Crude and European Age-Standardised (AS) Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2017

  England Scotland Wales Northern Ireland UK
Female Cases 4,053 469 236 140 4,898
Crude Rate 14.4 16.8 14.9 14.7 14.6
AS Rate 14.6 16.3 13.9 15.9 14.7
AS Rate - 95% LCL 14.1 14.8 12.1 13.3 14.3
AS Rate - 95% UCL 15.0 17.8 15.6 18.5 15.1
Male Cases 6,706 718 395 256 8,075
Crude Rate 24.4 27.2 25.6 27.8 24.8
AS Rate 27.7 29.9 26.3 33.7 28.0
AS Rate - 95% LCL 27.0 27.8 23.7 29.6 27.4
AS Rate - 95% UCL 28.4 32.1 28.9 37.8 28.6
Persons Cases 10,759 1,187 631 396 12,973
Crude Rate 19.3 21.9 20.2 21.2 19.6
AS Rate 20.7 22.5 19.7 24.0 20.9
AS Rate - 95% LCL 20.3 21.2 18.2 21.7 20.5
AS Rate - 95% UCL 21.1 23.7 21.2 26.4 21.3

95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and upper confidence limits Open a glossary item  around the AS Rate Open a glossary item

References

  1. Data were provided by the National Cancer Registration and Analysis Service (part of Public Health England), on request through the Office for Data Release, November 2019. Similar data can be found here: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2019. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, December 2019. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2019. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2017, ICD-10 C64-C66, C68.

Last reviewed:

Kidney cancer incidence is strongly related to age, with the highest incidence rates being in older people. In the UK in 2015-2017, on average each year around a third of new cases (34%) were in people aged 75 and over.[1-4]

Age-specific incidence rates rise from around 35 to 39, steadily for females and more steeply for males.The highest rates are in in the 85 to 89 age group for females and males.

Incidence rates are significantly lower in females than males in a number of (mainly older) age groups.The gap is widest at age 90+, when the age-specific incidence rate is 2.2 times lower in females than males.

Kidney cancer (C64-C66, C68), Average Number of New Cases per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2015-2017

For kidney cancer, like most cancer types, incidence increases with age. This largely reflects cell DNA damage accumulating over time. Damage can result from biological processes or from exposure to risk factors. A drop or plateau in incidence in the oldest age groups often indicates reduced diagnostic activity perhaps due to general ill health.

References

  1. Data were provided by the National Cancer Registration and Analysis Service (part of Public Health England), on request through the Office for Data Release, November 2019. Similar data can be found here: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2019. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, December 2019. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2019. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2015-2017, C64-C66, C68.

Last reviewed:

Kidney cancer European age-standardised (AS) incidence Open a glossary item rates for females and males combined increased by 87% in the UK between 1993-1995 and 2015-2017.[1-4] The increase was larger in females than in males.

For females, kidney cancer AS incidence rates in the UK increased by 95% between 1993-1995 and 2015-2017. For males, kidney cancer AS incidence rates in the UK increased by 75% between 1993-1995 and 2015-2017.

Over the last decade in the UK (between 2005-2007 and 2015-2017), kidney cancer AS incidence rates for females and males combined increased by 36%. In females AS incidence rates increased by 38%, and in males rates increased by 31%.

Kidney Cancer (ICD-10 C64-C66, C68), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, UK, 1993-2017

Kidney cancer incidence rates have increased overall in all broad age groups in females and males combined in the UK since the early 1990s.[1-4] Rates in 0-24s have increased by 33%, in 25-49s have increased by 98%, in 50-59s have increased by 66%, in 60-69s have increased by 66%, in 70-79s have increased by 92%, and in 80+s have increased by 132%.

Kidney Cancer (ICD-10 C64-C66, C68), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, By Age, UK, 1993-2017

For kidney cancer, like most cancer types, incidence trends largely reflect changing prevalence of risk factors and improvements in diagnosis and data recording. Recent incidence trends are influenced by risk factor prevalence in years past, and trends by age group reflect risk factor exposure in birth cohorts.

References

  1. Data were provided by the National Cancer Registration and Analysis Service (part of Public Health England), on request through the Office for Data Release, November 2019. Similar data can be found here: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2019. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, December 2019. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2019. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 1993-2017, ICD-10 C64-C66, C68.

Last reviewed:

Overall stage at diagnosis

A high proportion (70-82%) of kidney cancer cases in England, Scotland and Northern Ireland have a stage at diagnosis recorded.[1-3]

Kidney cancer patients with a known stage are most commonly diagnosed at stage I (41-47%). More patients with a known stage are diagnosed at an early stage (56% are diagnosed at stage I or II), than a late stage (44% are diagnosed at stage III or IV) in England and Northern Ireland.[1-3]

There are no differences between the proportion of kidney cancer patients diagnosed at an early stage (stages I or II) and a late stage (stages III or IV) in Scotland.[1-3]

Between 25% and 31% of people have metastases at diagnosis (stage IV).[1-3]

The stage distribution for each cancer type will reflect many factors including how the cancer type develops, the way symptoms appear, public awareness of symptoms, how quickly a person goes to see their doctor and how quickly the cancer is recognised and diagnosed by a doctor. It might also relate to whether a national screening programme that can detect early stage disease exists for that cancer type, along with the extent of uptake of that programme.

A cancer type associated with a large proportion of early stage diagnoses could be one that is more likely to be symptomatic at an earlier stage of development, with recognisable symptoms rather than more generic ones.

Kidney Cancer (C64-C66, C68), Proportion of Cases Diagnosed at Each Stage, All Ages, England 2014, Scotland 2013-2014, Northern Ireland 2010-2014

Data should not be compared between countries due to differences in time periods and possible differences in recording of stage at diagnosis.

References

  1. National Cancer Registration and Analysis Service. Stage Breakdown by CCG 2014. London: NCIN; 2016.
  2. ISD Scotland, Detect Cancer Early Staging Data. Scotland: ISD; 2016.
  3. Northern Ireland Cancer Registry, Queens University Belfast, Incidence by stage 2010-2014. Belfast: NICR; 2016.

About this data

Data is for: England 2014 and Scotland 2013-2014 ICD-10 C64, Northern Ireland 2010-2014, ICD-10 C64-C66, C68

Data is not comparable between countries due to differences in time periods and possible differences in how countries record stage at diagnosis.

Last reviewed:

Most kidney cancer cases occur in the kidney, with much smaller proportions in the renal pelvis, ureter and urethra and paraurethral gland (2010-2012).[1-4]

The proportion of cases in each part is similar between males and females.[1-4]

A small proportion of cases did not have the specific part of the kidney recorded in cancer registry data, or overlapped more than one part.[1-4]

Cases and percentages may not sum due to rounding

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2014. Similar data can be found here:
    http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here:
    http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, June 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/CancerInformation/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2010-2012, ICD-10 C64-C66, C68.

Last reviewed:

Kidney cancer incidence rates are projected to rise by 26% in the UK between 2014 and 2035, to 32 cases per 100,000 people by 2035.[1] This includes a larger increase for males than for females.

For males, kidney cancer European age-standardised (AS) Open a glossary item incidence rates in the UK are projected to rise by 28% between 2014 and 2035, to 44 cases per 100,000 by 2035.[1] For females, rates are projected to rise by 18% between 2014 and 2035, to 20 cases per 100,000 by 2035.[1]

Kidney cancer (C64-C66, C68), Observed and Projected Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, by Sex, UK, 1979-2035

It is projected that 21,732 cases of kidney cancer (14,259 in males, 7,474 in females) will be diagnosed in the UK in 2035.

References

  1. Smittenaar CR, Petersen KA, Stewart K, Moitt N. Cancer Incidence and Mortality Projections in the UK Until 2035. Brit J Cancer 2016.

About this data

Data is for: UK, 1979-2014 (observed), 2015-2035 (projected), ICD-10 C64-C66, C68

Projections are based on observed incidence and mortality rates and therefore implicitly include changes in cancer risk factors, diagnosis and treatment. It is not possible to assess the statistical significance of changes between 2014 (observed) and 2035 (projected) figures. Confidence intervals are not calculated for the projected figures. Projections are by their nature uncertain because unexpected events in future could change the trend. It is not sensible to calculate a boundary of uncertainty around these already uncertain point estimates. Changes are described as 'increase' or 'decrease' if there is any difference between the point estimates.

More on projections methodology

Last reviewed:

Kidney cancer incidence rates (European age-standardised (AS) rates Open a glossary item) in England in females are 40% higher in the most deprived quintile compared with the least, and in males are 17% higher in the most deprived quintile compared with the least (2013-2017).[1]

It is estimated that there are around 1,100 more cases of kidney cancer each year in England than there would be if every deprivation quintile had the same age-specific crude incidence rates as the least deprived quintile. Around 580 of these cases are in females, and around 510 in males.

In the text above, males and females’ excess cases do not sum to persons excess cases due to rounding

Kidney Cancer (C64-C66, C68), Estimated Average Number of Excess Cases per Year and European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, by Deprivation Quintile, England, 2013-2017

References

  1. Calculated by the Cancer Intelligence Team at Cancer Research UK, April 2020. Based on method reported in National Cancer Intelligence Network Cancer by Deprivation in England Incidence, 1996-2010 Mortality, 1997-2011 . Using cancer incidence data 2013-2017 (Public Health England) and population data 2013-2017 (Office for National Statistics) by Indices of Multiple Deprivation 2015 income domain quintile, cancer type, sex, and five-year age band.

About this data

Data is for England, 2013-2017, ICD-10 C21.

Last reviewed:

Age-standardised rates for White males with kidney cancer range from 11.2 to 11.8 per 100,000. Rates for Asian males are significantly lower, ranging from 5.3 to 9.2 per 100,000 and the rates for Black males are also significantly lower, ranging from 5.9 to 10.8 per 100,000. For females there is a different pattern - the age-standardised rates for White females range from 5.7 to 6.0 per 100,000. Rates for Black females are similar, ranging from 3.0 to 6.0 per 100,000, whereas Asian females are significantly lower, ranging from 1.9 to 3.8 per 100,000.[1]

Ranges are given because of the analysis methodology used to account for missing and unknown data. For kidney cancer, 25,886 cases were identified; 21% had no known ethnicity.

References

  1. National Cancer Intelligence Network and Cancer Research UK. Cancer Incidence and Survival by Major Ethnic Group, England, 2002-2006. 2009.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2002-2006, ICD-10 C64-C66, C68.

Last reviewed:

An estimated 46,800 people who had been diagnosed with kidney cancer between 1991 and 2010 were alive in the UK at the end of 2010.[1]

References

  1. Macmillan Cancer Support and National Cancer Registration and Analysis Service. Cancer Prevalence UK Data Tables. London: NCRAS; 2015.

About this data

Data is for: Great Britain (1991-2010) and Northern Ireland (1993-2010), ICD-10 C64-C66, C68

Last reviewed:

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