A study looking at biomarkers in prostate, kidney, bladder and testicular cancer (DIAMOND)

Cancer type:

Bladder cancer
Kidney cancer
Prostate cancer
Testicular cancer




This study is looking at biomarkers in:
  • blood
  • urine
  • stools (poo)
  • semen
  • breath
  • tissue
A biomarker is a substance in the body that doctors can measure. They might help us understand more about cancer and why it develops. It is for people with:
  • prostate cancer
  • kidney cancer
  • bladder cancer
  • testicular cancer

More about this trial

Cells Open a glossary item have substances (biomarkers Open a glossary item) that tell them how to behave and grow. Doctors call this our biological or genetic make up. 
Some people have biomarkers that make them more vulnerable to develop certain types of cancer. In this study, doctors want to look for these biomarkers. They hope this information will help them: 
  • learn more about the causes of cancer
  • develop better tests and treatments 
Everyone taking part gives blood, urine, poo and breath samples. Doctors may also ask for a tissue sample if you had, or are going to have, surgery. 
The main aim of this study is to look for biomarkers that might play a role in prostate, kidney, bladder and testicular cancer. 
Researchers are also looking for men who are going to have a biopsy to find out whether they have prostate cancer. This is part of a sub study called PRIM.  
Everyone taking part in the PRIM sub study has a blood test called Prostate Health Index (phi) before having a biopsy.  
The main aim of the PRIM sub study is to find out whether the phi test can help doctors diagnose prostate cancer. 

Who can enter

The following bullet points list the entry conditions for this study. Talk to your doctor or the study team if you are unsure about any of these. They will be able to advise you. 
Who can take part in the main part of this study
You may be able to join the main part of this study if you have one of the following cancers:
Who can’t take part in the main part of this study
You cannot join the main part of this study if any of these apply. You:
  • can’t give a sample of semen Open a glossary item 
  • have a complete blockage in the tubes that carry urine from each kidney to the bladder (ureter) 
  • are taking drugs that have zinc 
  • have any medical condition that doctors think could affect you taking part in this study
Who can take part in the PRIM sub study
To join the PRIM sub study, all of the following must apply:
Who can’t take part in the PRIM sub study
You cannot join the PRIM sub study if any of these apply. You:
  • have been diagnosed with prostate cancer 
  • have had a prostate biopsy in the past 
  • can’t have an MRI or a biopsy for any reason
  • have had a urinary tract infection Open a glossary item in the last 3 months
  • have had inflammation of the prostate (prostatitis) 

Trial design

First, you meet they study team when you are already at the hospital having tests or appointments that are part of your normal care. During the meeting, they ask questions about:
  • your health
  • the history of cancer in your family
The study team may also ask you to complete some questionnaires about your diet and lifestyle. 
Then everyone taking part gives a blood sample and a urine sample. The team may ask you to give more blood and urine samples if you continue to have hospital appointments. You don’t have to agree to the extra samples if you don’t want to. You can still take part in this study. 
The study team may ask to use a sample of your cancer taken when you were diagnosed. They will only use the excess tissue left after your diagnosis (the surplus). 
The study team might also ask you to give:
  • stool (poo) samples
  • breath samples
  • semen Open a glossary item samples
Finally, the team will ask whether they can access your medical records to find out about you and your medical history Open a glossary item.
Only the people involved in this research will look at your records. All your details will be kept confidential.

Hospital visits

You do not have any extra visits as part of this study. You give the samples when you are at the hospital having appointments that are part of your normal care. 

Side effects

There are no side effects from taking part in this study.


Newcastle upon Tyne
Southend on Sea

Recruitment start:

Recruitment end:

How to join a clinical trial

Please note: In order to join a trial you will need to discuss it with your doctor, unless otherwise specified.

Please note - unless we state otherwise in the summary, you need to talk to your doctor about joining a trial.

Chief Investigator

Mr Vincent J. Gnanapragasam

Supported by

Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
University of Cambridge 

Questions about cancer? Contact our information nurses

Freephone 0808 800 4040

Last review date

CRUK internal database number:


Please note - unless we state otherwise in the summary, you need to talk to your doctor about joining a trial.

Wendy took part in a new trial studying the possible side effect of hearing loss

A picture of Wendy

"I was delighted to take part in a clinical trial as it has the potential to really help others in the future.”

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