Clinical Trial Spotlight
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Here we feature clinical trials and translational research in cancer happening around the UK. You’ll find the latest information and evidence and hear from the research nurses, practitioners and researchers working on them.
Bladder and urinary tract cancer is the ninth most common cause of cancer death in the UK and accounted for 3% of cancer deaths (around 5,400 people) in 2016. The usual treatment for advanced urinary tract cancer is chemotherapy, followed by a treatment-free period where patients are checked periodically for signs of the cancer returning.
At Cancer Research UK’s Clinical Trials Unit in Glasgow, the phase II ATLANTIS trial is investigating whether treating patients with targeted cancer drugs after chemotherapy will delay the cancer returning and improve patient survival. Not all urinary tract cancers are the same and new drugs may help some people more than others. So, the trial involves analysing a patient’s tumour and looking for mutations in certain genes and proteins. Depending what this analysis shows, patients could go on to receive one of two targeted drugs – either cabozantinib or rucaparib. The team hopes to add more drugs to the trial in the future, providing crucial information about whether precision drugs could improve outcomes for patients with advanced urinary tract cancer.
The ATLANTIS trial has been running since 2016 and aims to recruit 188 patients by 2020, with 15 out of 24 recruitment sites – including Glasgow – now open.
To find out more about the ATLANTIS trial design and patient eligibility criteria, visit the ATLANTIS trial page on the Clinical Trials Database.
In the 1970s, just 4 in 10 women with breast cancer survived their disease beyond 10 years. This number has doubled so that now, around 8 in 10 women will survive their disease for at least 10 years.
But breast cancer is still the most common cancer for women in the UK and, despite our incredible progress, around 11,400 people die from the disease in the UK every year. Professor Carlos Caldas, based at the CRUK Cambridge Institute, is determined to change this. In 2012, Professor Caldas and his team made the landmark discovery that breast cancer is not just one disease – but ten. Not only are these diseases very different in terms of their genetics, they also respond differently to treatments, meaning patients may have varied outcomes.
This discovery was the result of a project called METABRIC, through which the team collected and compared more than 2,000 breast cancer samples. They also discovered faults in 40 genes that can cause breast cancer to develop – only a fraction of which were previously known to be involved in breast cancer development. This information is crucial, providing new insight into how breast cancer develops, and why some patients respond well to certain treatments while others don’t.
Professor Caldas is taking his findings to the next level, running the five-year Personalised Breast Cancer Project (PBCP) to match patients to the best treatment for their cancer. 2,500 women treated at the Cambridge Breast Cancer Unit will have their tumour DNA analysed, which will be recorded alongside their response to treatment. The team will be able to analyse the entire genetic code of each person’s tumour, which is a huge technological step forward – their previous study could only analyse part of this DNA. Importantly, this will allow the team to see every genetic fault behind each of the ten tumour types, providing unprecedented insight into what caused each patient’s disease to develop.
This information will feed into an unparalleled database of genetic and clinical information to be used by doctors and researchers around the world, to ensure people with breast cancer are accurately diagnosed and matched to the best treatment for them. But the reach of this research goes beyond breast cancer. Professor Caldas’ insights could be applied to other types of cancer, ensuring people receive treatment tailored for their disease – and giving them the best chance of beating their cancer.