Brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours incidence statistics

Cases

New cases of brain tumours, 2015, UK

Proportion of all cases

Percentage brain tumour is of total cancer cases, 2015, UK

 

Age

Peak rate of brain tumour cases, 2013-2015, UK

Trend over time

Change in brain tumour incidence rates since the early 1990s, UK

Brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours is the 9th most common cancer in the UK, accounting for 3% of all new cancer cases (2015).[1-4]

In males in the UK, brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours is the 11th most common cancer (3% of all new male cancer cases). In females in the UK it is the 8th most common cancer (3% of all new female cancer cases).

48% of brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours cases in the UK are in males, and 52% are in females.

Brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours incidence rates (European age-standardised (AS) rates Open a glossary item ) for persons are significantly higher than the UK average in Northern Ireland and Wales, and similar to the UK average in all other UK constituent countries.

Brain, Other CNS and Intracranial Tumours (C70-C72, C75.1-C75.3, D32-D33, D35.2-D35.4, D42-D43, D44.3-D44.5), Number of New Cases, Crude and European Age-Standardised (AS) Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2015

  England Scotland Wales Northern Ireland UK
Male Cases 4,502 441 347 176 5,466
Crude Rate 16.7 16.9 22.7 19.4 17.0
AS Rate 18.3 18.4 23.8 22.5 18.7
AS Rate - 95% LCI 17.8 16.7 21.3 19.2 18.2
AS Rate - 95% UCI 18.9 20.1 26.4 25.9 19.2
Female Cases 4,771 536 464 195 5,966
Crude Rate 17.2 19.4 29.5 20.7 18.1
AS Rate 17.7 19.1 28.5 22.1 18.4
AS Rate - 95% LCI 17.2 17.4 25.9 19.0 18.0
AS Rate - 95% UCI 18.2 20.7 31.0 25.2 18.9
Persons Cases 9,273 977 811 371 11,432
Crude Rate 16.9 18.2 26.2 20.0 17.6
AS Rate 18.0 18.9 26.3 22.3 18.6
AS Rate - 95% LCI 17.6 17.7 24.5 20.0 18.2
AS Rate - 95% UCI 18.3 20.0 28.1 24.6 18.9

95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and upper confidence limits Open a glossary item  around the AS Rate Open a glossary item 
 

For brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours, there are few established risk factors therefore differences between countries largely reflect differences in diagnosis and data recording.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2017. Similar data can be found here: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, August 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, October 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, July 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2015, ICD-10 C70-C72, C75.1-C75.3, D32-D33, D35.2-D35.4, D42-D43, D44.3-D44.5.

Last reviewed:

Brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours incidence is related to age, with the highest incidence rates being in older people. In the UK in 2013-2015, on average each year around a quarter (24%) of new cases were in people aged 75 and over.[1-4] In contrast to most cancer types, brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours also occur relatively frequently at younger ages.

Age-specific incidence rates remain relatively stable from infancy to around age 25-29, before increasing steadily. The highest rates are in the 85 to 89 age group for males and females.

Incidence rates are similar between males and females in most age groups.  

Brain, Other CNS And Intracranial Tumours (C70-C72, C75.1-C75.3, D32-D33, D35.2-D35.4, D42-D43, D44.3-D44.5), Average Number of New Cases per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2013-2015

95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and upper confidence limits Open a glossary item  around the AS Rate Open a glossary item
 

For brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours, like most cancer types, incidence increases with age. This largely reflects cell DNA damage accumulating over time. Damage can result from biological processes or from exposure to risk factors. A drop or plateau in incidence in the oldest age groups often indicates reduced diagnostic activity perhaps due to general ill health.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2017. Similar data can be found here: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, August 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, October 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, July 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2013-2015, ICD-10 C70-C72, C75.1-C75.3, D32-D33, D35.2-D35.4, D42-D43, D44.3-D44.5.

Last reviewed:

Brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours European age-standardised (AS) Open a glossary item incidence rates for males and females combined increased by 34% in the UK between 1993-1995 and 2013-2015.[1-4] The increase was larger in females than in males.

For males, brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours AS incidence rates in the UK increased by 24% between 1993-1995 and 2013-2015. For females, brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours AS incidence rates in the UK increased by 44% between 1993-1995 and 2013-2015.

Between 1979-1981 and 1991-1993 in Great Britain there was a larger incidence increase for benign and uncertain or unknown behaviour brain tumours (42% increase in persons) than for malignant brain tumours (25% increase in persons).[1-4]

For benign and uncertain or unknown behaviour brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours European AS incidence rates increased by 72% (persons) between 1993-1995 and 2013-2015. For malignant brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours, the rise has been smaller, with rates increasing by 9% (persons) between 1993-1995 and 2013-2015.

Over the last decade in the UK (between 2003-2005 and 2013-2015), brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours AS incidence rates for males and females combined increased by 15%. In males AS incidence rates increased by 8%, and in females rates increased by 23%. The increases are larger for benign and uncertain or unknown behaviour tumours (25% increase in persons), than for malignant tumours (6% increase in persons).

Brain, Other CNS and Intracranial Tumours (C70-C72, C75.1-C75.3, D32-D33, D35.2-D35.4, D42-D43, D44.3-D44.5), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, UK, 1993-2015

Brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours incidence rates have increased overall in all broad adult age groups in males and females combined in the UK since the early 1990s.[1-4] Rates in 25-49s have increased by 30%, in 50-59s have increased by 15%, in 60-69s have increased by 23%, in 70-79s have increased by 41%, and in 80+s have increased by 111%.

Brain, Other CNS and Intracranial Tumours (C70-C72, C75.1-C75.3, D32-D33, D35.2-D35.4, D42-D43, D44.3-D44.5), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, By Age, UK, 1993-2015

For brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours, like most cancer types, incidence trends largely reflect changing prevalence of risk factors and improvements in diagnosis and data recording. Recent incidence trends are influenced by risk factor prevalence in years past, and trends by age group reflect risk factor exposure in birth cohorts.

Data on malignant tumours have been collected by UK cancer registries for many decades, but data on benign and uncertain or unknown behaviour tumours were not consistently collected until the early 2000s. This means trends starting before the early 2000s are not reliable for benign and uncertain or unknown behaviour tumours.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2017. Similar data can be found here: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, August 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, October 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, July 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 1993-2015, ICD-10 C70-C72, C75.1-C75.3, D32-D33, D35.2-D35.4, D42-D43, D44.3-D44.5.

Last reviewed:

Most malignant brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours occur in the brain, with much smaller proportions in the meninges, endocrine glands Open a glossary item and other parts of the CNS (2010-2012).[1-4]  The proportion of cases in each part is similar between males and females.[1-4]

Cases and percentages may not sum due to rounding
 

In males, the largest proportion of benign brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours occur in the meninges, with  smaller proportions in the endocrine glands, brain and other parts of the CNS (2010-2012).[1-4

In females, most benign brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours occur in the meninges, with much smaller proportions in the endocrine glands, brain and other parts of the CNS (2010-2012).[1-4

The proportions of cases in the endocrine glands, brain and other CNS are higher in males (27.9%, 20.8% and 16.6%, respectively) than females (16.7%, 13.6% and 11.3%, respectively). In the meninges, the proportion is higher in females (58.4%) than in males (34.7%).[1-4]

A moderate proportion of cases did not have the specific site of the brain, other CNS and intracranial tumour recorded in cancer registry data, or overlapped more than one part.[1-4]

Cases and percentages may not sum due to rounding

 

See also

Find out more about the counting and coding of this data

Brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours incidence by tumour aggressiveness

Brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours incidence by morphology

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, June 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/CancerInformation/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2010-2012, ICD-10 C70-C72, C75.1-C75.3, D32-D33, D35.2-D35.4, D42-D43, D44.3-D44.5.

Last reviewed:

There are over 130 different types of tumour which can occur in the brain, other parts of the CNS or intracranial region.[1] The most common morphological types of brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours recorded in England in 2006-2010 were astrocytomas (34%) and meningiomas (21%).[2] Around 80% of astrocytomas were the very aggressive subtype glioblastoma (WHO Grade IV). Almost all of the meningiomas were less aggressive (WHO Grade I). Most of the pituitary tumours were adenomas. There were 14% of brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours recorded by registries as unknown or unspecified type; in many cases this may be because pathological samples (required to ascertain cell type) could not be obtained due to the location of the tumour.

Brain, Other CNS and Intracranial Tumours, by Morphology, Proportion of Cases, England, 2006-2010

Morphological Group % of all Brain, other CNS and intracranial tumour cases % of these more aggressive % of these less aggressive
Astrocytomas 34% 95% 5%
Meningiomas 21% 8% 92%
Pituitary 8% 1-2% 98-99%
Gliomas unspecified 6% * *
Cranial and paraspinal nerve tumours 6% 5% 95%
Oligodendrogliomas 3% * *
Ependymomas 2% 75% 25%
Embryonal tumours 2% 100% 0%
Other tumour types 5% * *
Unknown or unspecified type 14% * *

*Heterogeneous groups cannot be broken down by levels of aggressiveness. Data supplied by Eastern Cancer Registry and Information Centre (ECRIC) from the National Brain Tumour Registry.[2]

References

  1. Louis DN, Ohgaki H, Wiestler OD, Cavenee WK (eds). WHO Classification of tumours of the central nervous system. 4th ed. Lyon, France: IARC, 2007.
  2. Eastern Cancer Registry and Information Centre (ECRIC), National Brain Tumour Registry.  Personal communication, February 2013.

About this data

Data is for: England, 2006-2010. See source for ICD codes and other data specifics.

Last reviewed:

Brain tumours incidence rates are projected to rise by 6% in the UK between 2014 and 2035, to 22 cases per 100,000 people by 2035.[1] This includes a smaller increase for males than for females.

For males, brain tumours European age-standardised (AS) Open a glossary item incidence rates in the UK are projected to rise by 5% between 2014 and 2035, to 22 cases per 100,000 by 2035.[1] For females, rates are projected to rise by 8% between 2014 and 2035, to 22 cases per 100,000 by 2035.[1]

Brain tumours (C70-C72, C75.1-C75.3, D32-D33, D35.2-D35.4, D42-D43, D44.3-D44.5), Observed and Projected Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, by Sex, UK, 1979-2035

It is projected that 14,281 cases of brain tumours (6,884 in males, 7,397 in females) will be diagnosed in the UK in 2035.

References

  1. Smittenaar CR, Petersen KA, Stewart K, Moitt N. Cancer Incidence and Mortality Projections in the UK Until 2035. Brit J Cancer 2016.

About this data

Data is for: UK, 1979-2014 (observed), 2015-2035 (projected), ICD-10 C70-C72, C75.1-C75.3, D32-D33, D35.2-D35.4, D42-D43, D44.3-D44.5

Projections are based on observed incidence and mortality rates and therefore implicitly include changes in cancer risk factors, diagnosis and treatment. It is not possible to assess the statistical significance of changes between 2014 (observed) and 2035 (projected) figures. Confidence intervals are not calculated for the projected figures. Projections are by their nature uncertain because unexpected events in future could change the trend. It is not sensible to calculate a boundary of uncertainty around these already uncertain point estimates. Changes are described as 'increase' or 'decrease' if there is any difference between the point estimates.

More on projections methodology

Last reviewed:

There is evidence for a small association between brain, other CNS and intracranial tumour incidence and deprivation for females in England. This is one of the few cancers where incidence rates are lower for more deprived females. There is no evidence for an association between the incidence of brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours and deprivation for males.[1]

England-wide data for 2006-2010 show European age-standardised Open a glossary item incidence rates are 12% lower for females living in the most deprived areas compared with the least deprived, while for males the rates are similar for those living in the least and most deprived areas.[1]

Brain, Other CNS and Intracranial Tumours (C70-C72,C751-3,D32-D33,D352-4,D42-D43,D443-5), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates by Deprivation Quintile, England, 2006-2010

The estimated deprivation gradient in brain, CNS and intracranial tumour incidence between people living in the most and least deprived areas in England has not changed in the period 1996-2010.[1]

References

  1. Cancer Research UK and National Cancer Intelligence Network. Cancer by deprivation in England: Incidence, 1996-2010, Mortality, 1997-2011. London: NCIN; 2014.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2006-2010, ICD-10 C70-C72,C751-3,D32-D33,D352-4,D42-D43,D443-5

Deprivation gradient statistics were calculated using incidence data for 2006-2010. The deprivation quintiles were calculated using the Income domain scores from the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) from the following years: 2004, 2007 and 2010. Full details on the data and methodology can be found in the Cancer by Deprivation in England NCIN report.

Last reviewed:

Age-standardised rates Open a glossary item for White males with brain cancer (ICD-10 C70-C72 only) range from 8.2 to 8.7 per 100,000. Rates for Asian males significantly lower, ranging from 4.0 to 6.5 per 100,000 and the rates for Black males are also significantly lower, ranging from 2.9 to 5.4 per 100,000. For females there is a similar pattern - the age-standardised rates for White females range from 5.3 to 5.6 per 100,000, and rates for Asian and Black females are also significantly lower, ranging from 2.4 to 4.3 per 100,000 and 2.1 to 4.1 per 100,000 respectively.[1]

Ranges are given because of the analysis methodology used to account for missing and unknown data. For brain and CNS cancer, 19,012 cases were identified; 17% had no known ethnicity.

References

  1. National Cancer Intelligence Network and Cancer Research UK. Cancer Incidence and Survival by Major Ethnic Group, England, 2002-2006. 2009

About this data

Data is for England, 2002-2006, ICD-10 C70-C72

Last reviewed:

In the UK more than 9,700 people were still alive at the end of 2006, up to ten years after being diagnosed with a tumour in the brain, or other parts of the CNS (C70-C72).[1]

Brain and other parts of CNS (C70-C72), One-, Five- and Ten- Year Cancer Prevalence, UK, 31st December 2006

1 Year Prevalence 5 Year Prevalence 10 Year Prevalence
Male 1,448 3,633 5,456
Female 986 2,650 4,252
Persons 2,434 6,283 9,708

Worldwide, it is estimated that there were around 317,000 patients with these tumours were still alive in 2008, up to five years after their diagnosis of brain or other CNS tumour (C70-C72).[2]

References

  1. National Cancer Intelligence Network (NCIN). One, Five and Ten Year Cancer Prevalence by Cancer Network, UK, 2006. London: NCIN; 2010.
  2. Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, et al. DM GLOBOCAN 2008 v1.2, Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 10 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2010. Available from http://globocan.iarc.fr. Accessed May 2011.

About this data

Data is for: All UK patients who had been diagnosed with brain cancer between 1997 and 2006, ICD-10 C70-72

Last reviewed:

There are presently no reliable data on the incidence of secondary brain, other CNS and intracranial cancers – tumours which have metastasised (spread) to these sites from elsewhere in the body. In some patients, brain, other CNS and intracranial metastases may not manifest clinically in the patient’s lifetime, or a formal diagnosis may not be obtained if the patient is extremely unwell with their primary cancer. Therefore current estimates of the number of secondary tumours are thought to be conservative.[1] However, data collection is improving, and in coming years it should be possible to report national data for the number of cancers in the brain, other CNS and intracranial region which started elsewhere in the body.[2]

The best current estimate is that secondary brain cancers occur in at least 6% of all cancer patients, with marked variation by primary cancer site.[1] The proportion ranges from less than 1% of patients with thyroid, liver, stomach, prostate, uterine or ovarian cancers, to 20% of those with lung cancer.[1,3] Based on this estimate, metastatic brain tumours are thought to outnumber primary malignant brain tumours by at least three to one.[1]

References

  1. Davis FG, Dolecek TA, McCarthy BJ, et al. Toward determining the lifetime occurrence of metastatic brain tumors estimated from 2007 United States cancer incidence data. Neuro-Oncology 2012;14(9):1171-77.
  2. Eastern Cancer Registry and Information Centre (ECRIC), National Brain Tumour Registry.  Personal communication, February 2013.
  3. Barnholtz-Sloan JS, Sloan AE, et al. Incidence proportions of brain metastases in patients diagnosed (1973 to 2001) in the Metropolitan Detroit Cancer Surveillance System. J Clin Oncol 2004;22(14):2865-72.

About this data

Data is for: USA, 2007

Last reviewed:

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