Cervical cancer incidence statistics

Cases

New cases of cervical cancer, 2014, UK

 

Proportion of all cases

Percentage cervical cancer is of total cancer cases, 2014, UK

 

Age

Peak rate of cervical cancer cases, 2012-2014, UK

Trend over time

Change in cervical cancer incidence rates since the early 1990s, UK

 

Cervical cancer is the 13th most common cancer among females in the UK (2014), accounting for 2% of all new cases of cancer in females.[1-4]

In 2014, there were 3,224 new cases of cervical cancer in the UK.[1-4] The crude incidence rate Open a glossary item shows that there are around 10 new cervical cancer cases for every 100,000 females in the UK.

The European age-standardised incidence rates Open a glossary item (AS rates) are significantly higher in Scotland compared with other UK countries.[1-4] The rates do not differ significantly between the other UK countries.[1-4]

Cervical Cancer (C53), Number of New Cases, Crude and European Age-Standardised (AS) Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, Females, UK, 2014

England Wales Scotland Northern Ireland UK
Cases 2,590 164 388 82 3,224
Crude Rate 9.4 10.4 14.1 8.7 9.8
AS Rate 9.5 10.7 14.2 8.9 9.9
AS Rate - 95% LCL 9.1 9.0 12.8 7.0 9.6
AS Rate - 95% UCL 9.8 12.3 15.6 10.9 10.3

95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and upper confidence limits Open a glossary item around the AS Rate. Open a glossary item
Open a glossary item

For cervical cancer, like most cancer types, differences between countries largely reflect risk factor prevalence in years past.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for: UK, 2014, ICD-10 C53

Last reviewed:

Cervical cancer incidence is strongly related to age, with the highest incidence rates overall being in younger females – the converse pattern to most cancers.[1-4] In the UK in 2012-2014, on average each year more than half (52%) of cases were diagnosed in females under the age of 45.

Age-specific incidence rates rise sharply from around age 15-19, and peak in the 25-29 age group. Rates subsequently drop gradually until age 60-64 before rising again to reach a second peak in females aged 85-89.

Cervical Cancer (C53), Average Number of New Cases Per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates, UK, 2012-2014

For cervical cancer, like other cancer types with a screening programme, incidence increases rapidly at the age screening starts, as prevalent cases are identified. Incidence then tends to return to the usual pattern of gradual increase with age, which largely reflects cell DNA damage accumulating over time. Damage can result from biological processes or from exposure to risk factors. A drop or plateau in incidence in the oldest age groups often indicates reduced diagnostic activity perhaps due to general ill health.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2012-2014, ICD-10 C53

Last reviewed:

Cervical cancer European age-standardised Open a glossary item (AS) incidence rates decreased by 23% in females in the UK since the early 1990s.[1-3] This includes a rapid decrease followed by stability during this time Cervical cancer incidence rates decreased by 19% in Great Britain between 1979-1981 and 1991-1993, though this includes an increase between 1979-1981 to the peak rate in 1985-1987, followed by a sharp decrease through to 1991-1993 and beyond.[1-3]

Over the last decade in the UK (between 2003-2005 and 2012-2014), cervical cancer AS incidence rates in females have increased by 5%.[1-4] The transient increase around 2009 reflects increased cervical screening attendance following the cervical cancer death of a young celebrity.[5]

Cervical Cancer (C53), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, Females, UK, 1993-2014

Cervical cancer incidence trends probably reflect the effective implementation of the UK cervical screening programmes in the late 1980s. Cervical screening aims to prevent cancer developing by detecting early-stage cell changes (e.g. in situ cervical carcinoma), hence decreased incidence rates.[4] Changing prevalence of risk factors probably also plays a part, particularly among younger women in more recent years.[6-9]

Cervical cancer incidence rates have decreased overall for most of the broad age groups in the UK since the late 1990s,but have increased in females aged 20-24 and 25-34.[1-3] The largest decreases have been in females aged 50-64 and 65-79, with European AS incidence rates decreasing by 37% and 52% respectively between 1993-1995 and 2012-2014.

While incidence rates for females aged 25-34 initially decreased by 7% between 1993-1995 and 2000-2002, rates have since increased by 55% in this age group between 2000-2002 and 2012-2014.

Cervical Cancer (C53), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, Females, by Age, UK, 1993-2014​

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/ 
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/
  5. Lancucki L, Sasieni P, Patnick J, et al. The impact of Jade Goody's diagnosis and death on the NHS Cervical Screening Programme. J Med Screen 2012;19(2):89-93.
  6. NHS Cancer Screening Programmes. Audit of invasive cervical cancer, National report 2007-2011. May 2012.
  7. National Cancer Intelligence Network (NCIN). Cervical Cancer Incidence and Screening Coverage. London: NCIN; 2011.
  8. Patel A, Galaal K, Burnley C, et al. Cervical cancer incidence in young women: a historical and geographic controlled UK regional population study. Br J Cancer 2012;106(11):1753-9.
  9. Foley G, Alston R, Geraci M, et al. Increasing rates of cervical cancer in young women in England: an analysis of national data 1982-2006. Br J Cancer 2011;105(1):177-84.

About this data

Data is for UK: 1993-2014, ICD-10 C53

Last reviewed:

Overall stage at diagnosis

A high proportion (95%) of cervical cancers recorded with a known stage at diagnosis in Northern Ireland.[1]

Cervical cancer patients diagnosed with a known stage are most commonly diagnosed at stage I (57%). More patients with a known stage are diagnosed at an early stage (76% are diagnosed at stage I or II), than a late stage (25% are diagnosed at stage III or IV). Around 1 in 10 (9%) have metastases at diagnosis (stage IV).[1]

The stage distribution for each cancer type will reflect many factors including how the cancer type develops, the way symptoms appear, public awareness of symptoms, how quickly a person goes to see their doctor and how quickly the cancer is recognised and diagnosed by a doctor. It might also relate to whether a national screening programme that can detect early stage disease exists for that cancer type, along with the extent of uptake of that programme.

A cancer type associated with a large proportion of early stage diagnoses could be one that is more likely to be symptomatic at an earlier stage of development, with recognisable symptoms rather than more generic ones.

Cervical Cancer (C53), Proportion of Cases Diagnosed at Each Stage, All Ages, Northern Ireland 2010-2014

References

  1. Northern Ireland Cancer Registry, Queens University Belfast, Incidence by stage 2010-2014. Belfast: NICR; 2016

About this data

Data is for: Northern Ireland, 2010-2014, ICD10 C53

Last reviewed:

It has been estimated that around two thirds of cervical cancers are squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) Open a glossary item and around 15% are adenocarcinoma Open a glossary item (with nearly all of the remainder of cases being registered as poorly specified).[1-3] An analysis of cervical cancer incidence in Sweden has shown that an early age peak at 35-39 years is apparent for both SCC and adenocarcinoma.[4]

A study by the International Agency for Research on Cancer has reported an increase in adenocarcinoma and a downward trend in SCC in many countries worldwide.[5,6]

References

  1. Vizcaino AP, Moreno V, Bosch FX, et al. International Trends in Incidence of Cervical Cancer: II Squamous-cell Carcinoma. Int J Cancer 2000;86(3):429-435.
  2. Vizcaino AP, Moreno V, Bosch FX. International trends in the incidence of Cervical Cancer: Adenocarcinoma and Adenosquamous cell Carcinomas. International Journal of Cancer 1998;75(4):536-545.
  3. Quinn M, Babb P, Brock A, et al. Cancer Trends in England & Wales 1950-1999. London: Office for National Statistics; 2001.
  4. Hemminki K, Li X, Mutanen P. Age-incidence relationships and time trends in cervical cancer in Sweden. European Journal of Epidemiology 2001;17(4):323-8.
  5. Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, et al. GLOBOCAN 2008 v1.2, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No.10 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2010. Available from http://globocan.iarc.fr.
  6. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). World Cancer Report 2008. Lyon: IARC; 2008.
Last reviewed:

Cervical cancer incidence rates are projected to rise by 43% in the UK between 2014 and 2035, to 17 cases per 100,000 females by 2035.[1]

Cervical cancer (C53), Observed and Projected Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, by Sex, UK, 1979-2035

It is projected that 4,792 cases of cervical cancer will be diagnosed in the UK in 2035.

References

  1. Smittenaar CR, Petersen KA, Stewart K, Moitt N. Cancer Incidence and Mortality Projections in the UK Until 2035. Brit J Cancer 2016.

About this data

Data is for: UK, 1979-2014 (observed), 2015-2035 (projected), ICD-10 C53

Projections are based on observed incidence and mortality rates and therefore implicitly include changes in cancer risk factors, diagnosis and treatment. It is not possible to assess the statistical significance of changes between 2014 (observed) and 2035 (projected) figures. Confidence intervals are not calculated for the projected figures. Projections are by their nature uncertain because unexpected events in future could change the trend. It is not sensible to calculate a boundary of uncertainty around these already uncertain point estimates. Changes are described as 'increase' or 'decrease' if there is any difference between the point estimates.

More on projections methodology

Last reviewed:

The lifetime risk of developing cervical cancer is around 1 in 135 for women, in 2012 in the UK.[1]

The lifetime risk for cervical cancer has been calculated on the assumption that the possibility of having more than one diagnosis of cervical cancer over the course of a lifetime is very low (‘Current Probability’ method).[2]

References

  1. Lifetime risk estimates calculated by the Statistical Information Team at Cancer Research UK. Based on data provided by the Office of National Statistics, ISD Scotland, the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit and the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry, on request, December 2013 to July 2014.
  2. Esteve J, Benhamou E and Raymond L. Descriptive epidemiology. IARC Scientific Publications No.128, Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer, pp 67-68 1994.
Last reviewed:

There is evidence for an association between cervical cancer incidence and deprivation in England.[1] European age-standardised incidence rates are 72% higher for females living in the most deprived areas in England compared with the least deprived, as shown for females diagnosed with cervical cancer during 2006-2010.[1]

Cervical Cancer (C53), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates by Deprivation Quintile, Females, England, 2006-2010

The estimated deprivation gradient in cervical cancer incidence between females living in the most and least deprived areas in England has not changed in the period 1996-2010.[1] It is estimated that there would have been around 520 fewer cervical cancer cases each year in England during 2006-2010 if all females experienced the same incidence rates as the least deprived.[1]

References

  1. Cancer Research UK and National Cancer Intelligence Network. Cancer by deprivation in England: Incidence, 1996-2010, Mortality, 1997-2011. London: NCIN; 2014.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2006-2010, ICD-10 C53

Deprivation gradient statistics were calculated using incidence data for 2006-2010. The deprivation quintiles were calculated using the Income domain scores from the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) from the following years: 2004, 2007 and 2010. Full details on the data and methodology can be found in the Cancer by Deprivation in England NCIN report.

Last reviewed:

Age-standardised rates for White females with cervical cancer range from 8.2 to 8.7 per 100,000. Rates for Black females are similar, ranging from 6.3 to 11.2 per 100,000, whereas the rates for Asian females are significantly lower, ranging from 3.6 to 6.5 per 100,000.[1]

Ranges are given because of the analysis methodology used to account for missing and unknown data. For cervical cancer, 11,579 cases were identified; 22% had no known ethnicity.

Last reviewed:

An estimated 34,800 women who had been diagnosed with cervical cancer between 1991 and 2010 were alive in the UK at the end of 2010.[1]

References

  1. Macmillan Cancer Support and National Cancer Registration and Analysis Service. Cancer Prevalence UK Data Tables. London: NCRAS; 2015.

About this data

Data is for: Great Britain (1991-2010) and Northern Ireland (1993-2010), ICD-10 C53

Last reviewed:

Cervical cancer is the sixth most common cancer in Europe for females, and the 16th most common cancer overall, with around 58,400 new cases diagnosed in 2012 (4% of female cases and 2% of the total). In Europe (2012), the highest World age-standardised incidence rates for cervical cancer are in Romania; the lowest are in Switzerland. UK cervical cancer incidence rates are estimated to be the 12th lowest in Europe.[1] These data are broadly in line with Europe-specific data available elsewhere.[2]

Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer worldwide for females, and the seventh most common cancer overall, with more than 527,000 new cases diagnosed in 2012 (8% of female cases and 4% of the total). Cervical cancer incidence rates are highest in Eastern Africa and lowest in Western Asia, but this partly reflects varying data quality worldwide.[1]

Variation between countries may reflect different prevalence of risk factors, use of screening, and diagnostic methods.

References

  1. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed December 2013.
  2. Ferlay J, Steliarova-Foucher E, Lortet-Tieulent J, et al.Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in Europe: Estimates for 40 countries in 2012. European Journal of Cancer (2013) 49, 1374-1403.
Last reviewed:

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