Cervical cancer risk is up to doubled in current OC users who have used OCs for 5+ years, compared with never users, pooled- and meta-analyses have shown.[3-5] Cervical cancer risk may increase with longer duration of use,[3,4] but is no higher in women who last took OCs 10+ years ago, compared with never-users.
- International Agency for Research on Cancer. List of Classifications by cancer sites with sufficient or limited evidence in humans, Volumes 1 to 117. Accessed January 2017.
- Centre for Cancer Prevention, et al. Cancers attributable to exposure to hormones in the UK in 2010. Br J Cancer 2011;105 Suppl 2:S42-8.
- International Collaboration of Epidemiological Studies of Cervical Cancer, Appleby P, Beral V, et al. Cervical cancer and hormonal contraceptives: collaborative reanalysis of individual data for 16,573 women with cervical cancer and 35,509 women without cervical cancer from 24 epidemiological studies. Lancet 2007;370(9599):1609-21.
- Gierisch JM, Coeytaux RR, Urrutia RP, et al. Oral contraceptive use and risk of breast, cervical, colorectal, and endometrial cancers: a systematic review. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2013;22(11):1931-43.
- La Vecchia C, Boccia S. Oral contraceptives, human papillomavirus and cervical cancer. Eur J Cancer Prev 2014;23(2):110-2.