Liver cancer incidence statistics

Cases

New cases of liver cancer each year, 2016-2018 average, UK.

 

Proportion of all cases

Percentage liver cancer is of total cancer cases, 2016-2018, UK

 

Age

Peak rate of liver cancer cases, 2016-2018, UK

Trend over time

Change in liver cancer incidence rates since the early 1990s, UK

 

Liver cancer is the 18th most common cancer in the UK, accounting for 2% of all new cancer cases (2016-2018).[1-4]

In females in the UK, liver cancer is the 20th most common cancer (1% of all new female cancer cases). In males in the UK, it is the 15th most common cancer (2% of all new male cancer cases).

34% of liver cancer cases in the UK are in females, and 66% are in males.

Liver cancer incidence rates (European age-standardised (AS) rate Open a glossary item) for persons are significantly higher than the UK average in Scotland, significantly lower than the UK average in Northern Ireland and similar to the UK average in all other UK constituent countries.

For liver cancer, like most cancer types, differences between countries largely reflect risk factor prevalence in years past.

Liver Cancer (C22), Average Number of New Cases Per Year, Crude and European Age-Standardised (AS) Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2016-2018

  England Scotland Wales Northern Ireland UK
Female Cases 1,749 199 102 44 2,094
Crude Rate 6.2 7.1 6.4 4.7 6.3
AS Rate 6.2 6.8 5.8 5.1 6.2
AS Rate - 95% LCL 6.0 6.3 5.1 4.2 6.0
AS Rate - 95% UCL 6.3 7.4 6.4 5.9 6.3
Male Cases 3,399 416 211 93 4,120
Crude Rate 12.4 15.8 13.7 10.1 12.6
AS Rate 14.3 17.4 14.1 12.8 14.5
AS Rate - 95% LCL 14.0 16.5 13.0 11.3 14.3
AS Rate - 95% UCL 14.6 18.4 15.2 14.3 14.8
Persons Cases 5,148 615 313 138 6,214
Crude Rate 9.3 11.3 10.0 7.4 9.4
AS Rate 9.9 11.7 9.7 8.7 10.0
AS Rate - 95% LCL 9.8 11.1 9.0 7.8 9.9
AS Rate - 95% UCL 10.1 12.2 10.3 9.5 10.2

95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and upper confidence limits around the AS Rate Open a glossary item
 

References

  1. Data were provided by the National Cancer Registration and Analysis Service (part of Public Health England), on request through the Office for Data Release, July 2021. Similar data can be found here: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2020. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications.
  3. Data were published by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales https://phw.nhs.wales/services-and-teams/welsh-cancer-intelligence-and-surveillance-unit-wcisu/cancer-incidence-in-wales-2002-2018/, March 2021.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2020. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2016-2018, ICD-10 C22.

Last reviewed:

Liver cancer incidence is strongly related to age, with the highest incidence rates being in older people. In the UK in 2016-2018, on average each year more than 4 in 10 new cases (43%) were in people aged 75 and over.[1-4] A small proportion of liver cancers occur in children.

Age-specific incidence rates rise from around age 40-44, steadily for females and more steeply for males. The highest rates are in in the 85 to 89 age group for females and males.

Incidence rates are significantly lower in females than males in a number of (mainly older) age groups. The gap is widest at age 55 to 59, when the age-specific incidence rate is 2.9 times lower in females than males.

Liver cancer (C22), Average Number of New Cases per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2016-2018

For liver cancer, like most cancer types, incidence increases with age. This largely reflects cell DNA damage accumulating over time. Damage can result from biological processes or from exposure to risk factors. A drop or plateau in incidence in the oldest age groups often indicates reduced diagnostic activity perhaps due to general ill health.

References

  1. Data were provided by the National Cancer Registration and Analysis Service (part of Public Health England), on request through the Office for Data Release, July 2021. Similar data can be found here: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2020. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications.
  3. Data were published by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales https://phw.nhs.wales/services-and-teams/welsh-cancer-intelligence-and-surveillance-unit-wcisu/cancer-incidence-in-wales-2002-2018/, March 2021.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2020. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2016-2018, ICD-10 C22.

Last reviewed:

Liver cancer European age-standardised (AS) Open a glossary item incidence rates for females and males combined increased by 167% in the UK between 1993-1995 and 2016-2018.[1-4] The increase was larger in males than in females.

For females, liver cancer AS incidence rates in the UK increased by 141% between 1993-1995 and 2016-2018. For males, liver cancer AS incidence rates in the UK increased by 171% between 1993-1995 and 2016-2018.

Over the last decade in the UK (between 2006-2008 and 2016-2018), liver cancer AS incidence rates for females and males combined increased by 45%. In females AS incidence rates increased by 38%, and in males rates increased by 46%.

Liver Cancer (C22), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, UK, 1993 to 2018

Liver cancer incidence rates have increased overall in most broad age groups in females and males combined in the UK since the early 1990s, but have remained stable in some.[1-4] Rates in 0-24s have remained stable, in 25-49s have increased by 83%, in 50-59s have increased by 129%, in 60-69s have increased by 172%, in 70-79s have increased by 166% and in 80+s have increased by 212%.

Liver Cancer (C22), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates per 100,000 Persons Population, By Age, UK, 1993-2018

For liver cancer, like most cancer types, incidence trends largely reflect changing prevalence of risk factors and improvements in diagnosis and data recording. Recent incidence trends are influenced by risk factor prevalence in years past, and trends by age group reflect risk factor exposure in birth cohorts.

References

  1. Data were provided by the National Cancer Registration and Analysis Service (part of Public Health England), on request through the Office for Data Release, July 2021. Similar data can be found here: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2020. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications.
  3. Data were published by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales https://phw.nhs.wales/services-and-teams/welsh-cancer-intelligence-and-surveillance-unit-wcisu/cancer-incidence-in-wales-2002-2018/, March 2021.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2020. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 1993-2018, ICD-10 C22.

Last reviewed:

In females, the most common specific type of liver cancer in the UK is intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma, in males the most common specific type of liver cancer in the UK is hepatocellular carcinoma (2016-2018).[1-4] Variation of incidence by anatomical site may reflect the physical size of each site, and differences in risk factor exposure by site, among other factors.

Cases and percentages may not sum due to rounding

References

  1. Data were provided by the National Cancer Registration and Analysis Service (part of Public Health England), on request through the Office for Data Release, July 2021. Similar data can be found here: https://www.ons.gov.uk
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2020. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications.
  3. Data were published by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales, March 2021. https://phw.nhs.wales/services-and-teams/welsh-cancer-intelligence-and-surveillance-unit-wcisu/cancer-incidence-in-wales-2002-2018/.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, June 2020. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/

About this data

Data is for UK, 2016-2018, ICD-10 C22. For some cases the specific location of the cancer is not recorded, this may be due to clinical or data recording factors.

Last reviewed:

Liver cancer incidence rates are projected to rise by 38% in the UK between 2014 and 2035, to 15 cases per 100,000 people by 2035.[1] This includes a larger increase for males than for females.

For males, liver cancer European age-standardised (AS) Open a glossary item incidence rates in the UK are projected to rise by 43% between 2014 and 2035, to 23 cases per 100,000 by 2035.[1] For females, rates are projected to rise by 21% between 2014 and 2035, to 8 cases per 100,000 by 2035.[1]

Liver cancer (C22), Observed and Projected Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, by Sex, UK, 1979-2035

It is projected that 11,133 cases of liver cancer (7,770 in males, 3,364 in females) will be diagnosed in the UK in 2035.

References

  1. Smittenaar CR, Petersen KA, Stewart K, Moitt N. Cancer Incidence and Mortality Projections in the UK Until 2035. Brit J Cancer 2016.

About this data

Data is for: UK, 1979-2014 (observed), 2015-2035 (projected), ICD-10 C22

Projections are based on observed incidence and mortality rates and therefore implicitly include changes in cancer risk factors, diagnosis and treatment. It is not possible to assess the statistical significance of changes between 2014 (observed) and 2035 (projected) figures. Confidence intervals are not calculated for the projected figures. Projections are by their nature uncertain because unexpected events in future could change the trend. It is not sensible to calculate a boundary of uncertainty around these already uncertain point estimates. Changes are described as 'increase' or 'decrease' if there is any difference between the point estimates.

More on projections methodology

Last reviewed:

Liver cancer incidence rates (European age-standardised (AS) rates Open a glossary item) in England in females are 78% higher in the most deprived quintile compared with the least, and in males are 89% higher in the most deprived quintile compared with the least (2013-2017).[1]

It is estimated that there are around 1,200 more cases of liver cancer each year in England than there would be if every deprivation quintile had the same age-specific crude incidence rates as the least deprived quintile. Around 390 of these cases are in females, and around 810 in males.

Liver Cancer (C22), Estimated Average Number of Excess Cases per Year and European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, by Deprivation Quintile, England, 2013-2017

References

  1. Calculated by the Cancer Intelligence Team at Cancer Research UK, April 2020. Based on method reported in National Cancer Intelligence Network Cancer by Deprivation in England Incidence, 1996-2010 Mortality, 1997-2011 . Using cancer incidence data 2013-2017 (Public Health England) and population data 2013-2017 (Office for National Statistics) by Indices of Multiple Deprivation 2015 income domain quintile, cancer type, sex, and five-year age band.

About this data

Data is for England, 2013-2017, ICD-10 C22.

Last reviewed:

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