More than 80% of young people diagnosed with cancer (including all benign/uncertain brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours) survive their disease for at least five years, according to data for the period 2001-2005 in the UK. The survival rate is slightly higher in females (84%) than males (81%).
Young People's Cancers, Five-Year Relative Survival Rates, Ages 15-24, UK, 1991-2005
|Male||Five-Year Relative Survival Rates||75.6||78.3||81.4|
|Female||Five-Year Relative Survival Rates||79.4||81.5||84.4|
95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and upper
Survival for Northern Ireland is included from 1993 onwards.
All young people's cancers includes all invasive cancers excluding non-melanoma skin cancers (ICD-10 codes: C00-C97 excluding C44), and all benign/uncertain brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours (ICD-10 codes: D32-D33, D35.2-D35.4, D42-D43 and D44.3-D44.5, except for Northern Ireland for which ICD-10 codes: D32, D33.0-D33.4, D35.2-D35.4, D42, D43.0-D43.4 and D44.3-D44.5 are included).
Survival varies greatly according to the type of young people's cancer diagnosed. For the broad diagnostic groups (and cancer types where data are available), five-year relative survival for males aged 15-24 diagnosed during 2001-2005 in the UK ranges from 98% for thyroid carcinoma to 55% for soft tissue sarcomas.
Young People Cancer Diagnostic Groups and Cancer Types, Five-Year Relative Survival, Males, Ages 15-24, UK, 2001-2005
For females aged 15-24 diagnosed during 2001-2005 in the UK, five-year relative survival ranges from almost 100% for thyroid carcinoma to 56% for both acute myeloid leukaemia and bone tumours. Some cancers show large survival differences between the sexes, but these are generally not statistically significant.
Young People Cancer Diagnostic Groups and Cancer Types, Five-Year Relative Survival, Females, Ages 15-24, UK, 2001-2005
A comparison of five-year survival between children and 15-24 year-olds diagnosed during 2001-2005 in the UK has shown that young people often experience lower survival than children for many cancer types.
The analysis showed five-year survival from acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in young people was significantly lower than among children (61% and 89%, respectively). Furthermore, survival from ALL decreased with age, from 69% in 15-18 year-olds to 52% in 19-24 year-olds. A similar association with age was also seen for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), with five-year survival decreasing from 66% in children to 57% in young people. Other diagnostic groups showing lower survival in young people compared with children include soft tissue sarcoma and bone tumours. Conversely, brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours showed higher survival in 15-24 year-olds compared with children. The differences between age-groups may be attributed to a range of factors, including variation in tumour subtype and/or biology and different treatment protocols. For ALL and AML, much of the survival differences were apparent after one year, suggesting that factors relating to diagnosis may also be important.
- Five-year relative survival, ages 15-24, UK, 1991-2005 data were provided by North West Cancer Intelligence Service (NWCIS) on request in 2013. Similar data can be found here.
- National Cancer Intelligence Network (NCIN). Survival in Teenagers and Young Adults (TYA) with Cancer in the UK. London: NCIN, 2012.