Pancreatic cancer risk factors

Prevention

Preventable cases of pancreatic cancer, UK

Smoking

Pancreatic cancer cases linked to exposure to tobacco smoke, UK

Excess bodyweight

Pancreatic cancer cases linked to excess bodyweight, UK

37% of pancreatic cancer cases each year in the UK are linked to major lifestyle and other risk factors.[1]

Pancreatic cancer is associated with a number of risk factors.[2-4]

Pancreatic Cancer Risk Factors

  Increases risk Decreases risk
'Sufficient' or 'convincing' evidence
  • Tobacco smoking
  • Smokeless tobacco
  • Body fatness
 
'Limited' or 'probabale' evidence
  • Alcoholic drinks
  • Thorium-232 and its decay products
  • X-radiation, gamma-radiation
  • Red meat
  • Greater childhood growth
 

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) classifications.

References

  1. Parkin DM, Boyd L, Walker LC. The fraction of cancer attributable to lifestyle and environmental factors in the UK in 2010. Br J Cancer 2011;105(S2):S77-S81.
  2. International Agency for Research on Cancer. List of Classifications by cancer sites with sufficient or limited evidence in humans, Volumes 1 to 116*. Accessed October 2016.
  3. Lauby-Secretan B, Scoccianti C, Loomis D, et al. Body Fatness and Cancer--Viewpoint of the IARC Working Group. N Engl J Med. 2016 Aug 25;375(8):794-8
  4. World Cancer Research Fund / American Institute for Cancer Research. Continuous Update Project Findings & Reports. Accessed October 2016.
Last reviewed:

Tobacco smoking and smokeless tobacco are classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as causes of pancreatic cancer.[1] An estimated 29% of pancreatic cancers in the UK are linked to tobacco smoking.[2]

Last reviewed:

Pancreatic cancer risk is 2.2 times higher in current smokers compared with never-smokers, a pooled analysis showed.[1] Risk increases with the number of cigarettes smoked per day, and duration of cigarette smoking, meta- and pooled analyses have shown.[1,2]

Pancreatic cancer risk in those who quit smoking 20 years ago is similar to that of never-smokers, a pooled analysis showed.[1]

Pancreatic cancer risk is increased to a similar extent in people who smoke cigars only and people who smoke cigarettes only, a pooled analysis showed.[3] Pancreatic cancer risk is not associated with pipe-only smoking.[3]

Last reviewed:

Pancreatic cancer risk is not associated with exposure to environmental tobacco smoke during childhood or adulthood, a meta-analysis showed.[1]

Last reviewed:

Pancreatic cancer risk is around 80% higher among ever-users of snus, compared with snus never-users, a meta-analysis showed.[1] However, a pooled analysis showed the evidence is mixed.[2]

Pancreatic cancer risk is not associated with ever-use of smokeless tobacco overall, compared with never-use of any tobacco, a pooled analysis and systematic review have shown.[3,4]

Last reviewed:

Body fatness is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) as a cause of pancreatic cancer.[1,2] An estimated 12% of pancreatic cancers in the UK are linked to overweight and obesity.[3]

Pancreatic cancer risk increases by 10% per 5-unit body mass index (BMI) increase, a meta-analysis showed.[4] Pancreatic cancer risk increases by 11% per 10cm waist circumference increase, and by 19% per 0.1-unit waist-to-hip ratio increment, this meta-analysis showed.[4]

Last reviewed:

Alcohol consumption is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a possible cause of pancreatic cancer, based on limited evidence.[1] Heavy alcohol drinking is classified by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) as a possible cause of pancreatic cancer, based on limited-suggestive evidence.[2]

Pancreatic cancer risk is 20% higher in people who consume 50g+ (6+ units) of alcohol per day, compared with non- or occasional drinkers, a meta-analysis showed.[3] Pancreatic cancer risk is not associated with drinking less than 50g (6 units) of alcohol per day.[3]

Last reviewed:

Thorium-232 and its decay products, X-radiation, and Gamma-radiation are classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as causes of pancreatic cancer.[1]

Pancreatic cancer mortality risk is not increased in atomic bomb survivors.[2]

An estimated 2% of pancreatic cancers in males in the UK, and 4% in females, are linked to radiotherapy for previous cancer.[3,4]

References

  1. International Agency for Research on Cancer. List of Classifications by cancer sites with sufficient or limited evidence in humans, Volumes 1 to 105*. Available from: http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php. Accessed May 2014.
  2. Ozasa K, Shimizu Y, Suyama A, et al. Studies of the mortality of atomic bomb survivors, Report 14, 1950-2003: an overview of cancer and noncancer diseases. Radiat Res 2012;177(3):229- 43.
  3. Parkin DM, Boyd L, Walker LC. The fraction of cancer attributable to lifestyle and environmental factors in the UK in 2010. Br J Cancer 2011;105(S2):S77-S81.
  4. Parkin DM, Darby SC. Cancers in 2010 attributable to ionising radiation in the UK. Br J Cancer 2011;105(S2):S57-S65.
Last reviewed:

Greater adult attained height is classified by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) as a probable cause of pancreatic cancer.[1] Height probably indicates genetic, environmental, hormonal and nutritional factors, rather than directly causing pancreatic cancer.[1]

Pancreatic cancer risk is not associated with adult height, meta- and pooled analyses have shown.[2,3]

References

  1. World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research. Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective. Washington DC: AICR; 2007.
  2. Aune D, Vieira AR, Chan DS, et al. Height and pancreatic cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Cancer Causes Control 2012;23(8):1213-22.
  3. Wirén S, Häggström C, Ulmer H, et al. Pooled cohort study on height and risk of cancer and cancer death. Cancer Causes Control 2014;25(2):151-9.
Last reviewed:

Red and processed meats are classified by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) as a possible cause of pancreatic cancer, based on limited-suggestive evidence.[1]

Pancreatic cancer risk is 29% higher per 120g/day red meat intake in men, a meta-analysis showed.[2] Pancreatic cancer risk is not associated with red meat intake in women.[2] This sex difference may reflect overall lower red meat consumption in women.[2]

Last reviewed:

Foods and beverages containing fructose are classified by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) as a possible cause of pancreatic cancer, based on limited-suggestive evidence.[1]

Pancreatic cancer risk is 22% higher per 25g/day fructose intake, a meta-analysis showed.[2]

Last reviewed:

Foods containing saturated fatty acids are classified by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) as a possible cause of pancreatic cancer, based on limited-suggestive evidence.[1]

Pancreatic cancer risk is not associated with saturated, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fatty acids intake, a meta-analysis showed.[2]

Last reviewed:

Pancreatic cancer risk is almost threefold higher in people with chronic pancreatitis, compared with healthy controls Open a glossary item, a pooled analysis showed.[1] Pancreatic cancer risk is higher still shortly after pancreatitis diagnosis, probably because of increased investigative activity in this period and/or initial misdiagnosis of pancreatic cancer as pancreatitis.[1]

Pancreatic cancer risk is increased more than 50-fold in people with hereditary pancreatitis.[2]

References

  1. Duell EJ, Lucenteforte E, Olson SH, et al. Pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer risk: a pooled analysis in the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4). Ann Oncol 2012; 23(11):2964-70. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mds140.
  2. Haddad A, Kowdley GC, Pawlik TM, et al. Hereditary pancreatic and hepatobiliary cancers. Int J Surg Oncol. 2011;2011:154673
Last reviewed:

Pancreatic cancer risk is 25% higher in people with gallstones (cholelithiasis) versus people without, a meta-analysis showed; gallstone disease and pancreatitis are often associated.[1] Pancreatic cancer risk may only be increased shortly after gallstones diagnosis, probably because of increased investigative activity in this period and/or gallstones being an early symptom of pancreatic cancer.[1]

Pancreatic cancer risk is 23% higher in people who have undergone gallbladder removal (cholecystectomy), a meta-analysis showed.[2]

Last reviewed:

Pancreatic cancer risk is around twice as high in diabetics compared with non-diabetics, meta-analyses have shown.[1,2] Diabetes may be a cause or an early manifestation of pancreatic cancer, and may vary by treatment type (which itself reflects diabetes severity).[1]

Pancreatic cancer risk may be lower in metformin users versus non-users,[3,4] however there may be no association,[5,6] meta-analyses have shown. Pancreatic cancer risk may be lower in insulin users versus non-users,[7] however there may be no association,[6] meta-analyses have shown; risk may only be increased with shorter-term insulin use.[8] Pancreatic cancer risk is higher in sulfonylureas users versus non-users,[6] and is not associated with thiazolidinediones use,[6,9] meta-analyses have shown. Pancreatic cancer risk is not associated with incretin-based therapy use, a meta-analysis showed;[10] however, risk may decrease with duration of incretin-based therapy of more than 2 years.[10]

Pancreatic cancer risk is 58% higher in women with metabolic syndrome (characterised by overweight/obesity, ineffective insulin use, diabetes and hypertension), compared with the general population, a meta-analysis showed.[11] Pancreatic cancer risk is not associated with metabolic syndrome in men.[11]

References

  1. Ben Q, Xu M, Ning X, et al. Diabetes mellitus and risk of pancreatic cancer: A meta-analysis of cohort studies. Eur J Cancer. 2011 Sep;47(13):1928-37.
  2. Batabyal P, Vander Hoorn S, Christophi C, et al. Association of Diabetes Mellitus and Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: A Meta-Analysis of 88 Studies. Ann Surg Oncol 2014.
  3. Wang Z, Lai ST, Xie L, et al. Metformin is associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2014.
  4. Shen M, Boffetta P, Olsen JH, et al. A pooled analysis of second primary pancreatic cancer. Am J Epidemiol 2006; 163(6):502-11.
  5. Gandini S, Puntoni M, Heckman-Stoddard BM, et al. Metformin and cancer risk and mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis taking into account biases and confounders. . Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2014;7(9):867-85.
  6. Singh S, Singh PP, Singh AG, et al. Anti-diabetic medications and risk of pancreatic cancer in patients with diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol 2013;108(4):510-9.
  7. Karlstad O, Starup-Linde J, Vestergaard P, et al. Use of insulin and insulin analogs and risk of cancer - systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Curr Drug Saf.2013;8(5):333-48.
  8. Bosetti C, Rosato V, Li D, et al. Diabetes, antidiabetic medications, and pancreatic cancer risk: an analysis from the International Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium. Ann Oncol 2014;25(10):2065-72.
  9. Bosetti C, Rosato V, Buniato D, et al. Cancer risk for patients using thiazolidinediones for type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Oncologist 2013;18(2):148-56.
  10. Chen H, Zhou X, Chen T, et al. Incretin-Based Therapy and Risk of Pancreatic Cancer in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Diabetes Ther. 2016 Dec;7(4):725-742.
  11. Esposito K, Chiodini P, Colao A, et al. Metabolic syndrome and risk of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Care 2012;35(11):2402-11.
Last reviewed:

Pancreatic cancer risk is not associated with history of gastric or duodenal ulcer Open a glossary item, a pooled analysis of case-control studies showed.[1] However, risk was around doubled in male gastric ulcer patients in a cohort study.[2]

Pancreatic cancer risk is 6 times higher in people who have had gastrectomy (full/partial stomach removal) in the past two years.[1] This probably reflects detection of prevalent cancer through increased investigative activity in this period, however post-operative bacteria growth may be implicated.[1,3]

Last reviewed:

Pancreatic cancer risk is 40% higher in people with group A blood, compared with other blood groups, a meta-analysis showed.[1] Increased pancreatic cancer risk in people with group B or AB blood varies by H. pylori infection prevalence in the population.[1]

Last reviewed:

Pancreatic cancer risk is higher in people with previous upper aerodigestive (e.g. oral, larynx), gynaecological (e.g. cervix, uterus, ovary), urological (e.g. bladder, kidney), or other (e.g. female breast, testis, stomach) cancer types, a pooled analysis showed.[1] Pancreatic cancer risk varies with age at diagnosis of first cancer, and time since that diagnosis.[1,2]

This may reflect shared risk factors with the first cancer (e.g. smoking, reproductive factors, genetic conditions), or treatment for the first cancer (e.g. radiotherapy).[1]

Last reviewed:

Pancreatic cancer risk is 62-76% higher in people with a first-degree relative Open a glossary item with the disease, meta- and pooled analyses have shown.[1,2] Risk is higher in those with more first-degree relatives affected, or first-degree relatives diagnosed at a younger age.[3] Pancreatic cancer risk is 45% higher in people with a first-degree relative with prostate cancer, a pooled analysis showed.[1]

Last reviewed:

Pancreatic cancer risk is higher in people with the following rare genetic conditions, compared with the general population:[1,2]

  • Peutz-Jeghers syndrome - more than 100 times higher risk
  • Familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome (FAMMM) - 13-38 times higher risk
  • Lynch syndrome/hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) - up to around 9 times higher risk (some evidence of no association)
  • BRCA2 mutation - 3.5 times higher risk
  • BRCA1 mutation - up to 2.3 times higher risk (some evidence of no association).

These genetic syndromes explain a small proportion of familial pancreatic cancer.[1,2]

Last reviewed:

Pancreatic cancer risk is 20-60% higher in people with chronic hepatitis B infection, compared with hepatitis B-negative people, meta-analyses have shown.[1-3,6]

Hepatitis C infection may also increase pancreatic cancer risk, but evidence remains unclear.[3-5]

References

  1. Wang Y, Yang S, Song F, et al. Hepatitis B virus status and the risk of pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2013 Jul;22(4):328-34.
  2. Luo G, Hao NB, Hu CJ, et al. HBV infection increases the risk of pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis. Cancer Causes Control. 2013 Mar;24(3):529-37.
  3. Xu JH, Fu JJ, Wang XL, et al. Hepatitis B or C viral infection and risk of pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies. World J Gastroenterol. 2013 Jul 14;19(26):4234-41.
  4. Fiorino S, Chili E, Bacchi-Reggiani L, et al. Association between hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus infection and risk of pancreatic adenocarcinoma development: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pancreatology. 2013 Mar-Apr;13(2):147-60.
  5. Xing S, Li ZW, Tian YF, et al. Chronic hepatitis virus infection increases the risk of pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2013 Dec;12(6):575-83.
  6. Majumder S, Bockorny B, Baker WL, Dasanu CA. Association Between HBsAg Positivity and Pancreatic Cancer: a Meta-Analysis. J Gastrointest Cancer 2014;45(3):347-52.
Last reviewed:

Pancreatic cancer risk is 56% higher in people in Europe with H. pylori infection, compared with uninfected people, a meta-analysis showed.[1]

Last reviewed:

Pancreatic cancer risk is higher in people with periodontal disease or tooth loss, cohort studies have shown.[1,2] Porphyromonas gingivalis, a bacteria which causes periodontal disease, may be implicated.[1]

Last reviewed:

An estimated 0.01% of pancreatic cancers in Great Britain are linked to occupational exposure to acrylamide (used in industry e.g. dye, fabric and paper manufacture; also found in foods).[1]

Last reviewed:

Pancreatic cancer risk is lower in people with the highest intake of the following foods, meta- and pooled analyses, or systematic reviews have shown:

  • Dietary folate – 34% lower risk (though some evidence of no association,[1] no association with supplemental folate intake[2]).[2,3]
  • Selenium – 34% lower risk.[4]
Last reviewed:

Physical activity of all types (occupational, household, transport, and recreational) is classified by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) as possibly protective against pancreatic cancer.[1] Pancreatic cancer risk is 28% lower in people with the highest levels of total physical activity compared with those with the lowest, a meta-analysis showed.[2] The association may be limited to occupational activity, not recreational.[2,3]

References

  1. World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research. Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective. Washington DC: AICR; 2007.
  2. O'Rorke MA, Cantwell MM, Cardwell CR, et al. Can physical activity modulate pancreatic cancer risk? a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Cancer. 2010 Jun 15;126(12):2957-68.
  3. Bao Y, Michaud DS. Physical activity and pancreatic cancer risk: a systematic review. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 2008. 17(10):2671-82.
Last reviewed:

Pancreatic cancer risk is 15% lower in women who have the highest number of children compared with those who have the lowest, a meta-analysis showed.[1] However, pancreatic cancer risk is not associated with number of live births or number of pregnancies, a pooled analysis of case-control studies showed.[2]

Pancreatic cancer risk may be lower in women who have had a hysterectomy.[2] Hysterectomy combined with hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may decrease risk further, a pooled analysis of case-control studies showed.[2]

Last reviewed:

Pancreatic cancer risk is 25-27% lower in people with a history of allergy, meta- and pooled analyses have shown.[1,2] However, pancreatic cancer risk is not associated with asthma.[1,2]

Last reviewed:

The World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) make no judgement on the association between pancreatic cancer risk and physical activity; fruits; vegetables; folate; fish; eggs; tea; soft drinks; carbohydrates; sucrose; glycaemic index; glycaemic load; total fat; monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats; dietary cholesterol; vitamin C; and multivitamin/mineral supplements, due to limited evidence.[1]

Coffee is classified by WCRF/AICR as unlikely to have a substantial effect on pancreatic cancer risk.[1]

Pancreatic cancer risk is not associated with the following factors, meta- and pooled analyses or systematic reviews have shown:

  • Processed meat (though some evidence of risk increase).[2]
  • Aspirin or non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).[3-5]
  • Sweetened carbonated drinks.[6]
  • Occupational exposure to diesel exhaust.[7]
  • Statins.[8]
  • Dietary sucrose.[9]
  • Dietary carbohydrates.[9]
  • Fish or omega-3 fatty acids.[10]
  • Dairy products (milk, cheese, cottage cheese, yogurt, ice-cream).[11]
  • Coffee.[12]
  • Vitamin D (blood levels, dietary[13] or supplements).[14]
  • Dietary vitamin C.[15]
  • Dietary vitamin E.[15]
  • Dietary β-carotene.[15]
  • Dietary lycopene.[15]
  • Dietary nitrate and nitrite.[16]
  • Total fat.[17]
  • Age at menarche, age at menopause.[18]
  • Oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy.[18]
  • Tea.[19]
  • Fruit and vegetables.[20]
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus.[21]

References

  1. World Cancer Research Fund / American Institute for Cancer Research. Continuous Update Project Findings & Reports. Accessed October 2016.
  2. Larsson SC, Wolk A. Red and processed meat consumption and risk of pancreatic cancer: meta-analysis of prospective studies. British Journal of Cancer, 2012; doi: 10.1038/bjc.2011.585
  3. Larsson SC, Giovannucci E, Bergkvist L, et al. Aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and risk of pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2006; 15(12):2561-4.
  4. Cui XJ, He Q, Zhang JM, et al. High-Dose Aspirin Consumption Contributes to Decreased Risk for Pancreatic Cancer in a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Pancreas. 2014 Jan;43(1):135-40.
  5. Zhang YP, Wan YD, Sun YL, et al. Aspirin might reduce the incidence of pancreatic cancer: A meta-analysis of observational studies. Sci Rep. 2015;5:15460
  6. Boyle P, Koechlin A, Autier P. Sweetened carbonated beverage consumption and cancer risk: meta-analysis and review. Eur J Cancer Prev 2014.
  7. Boffetta P. Lack of association between occupational exposure to diesel exhaust and risk of pancreatic cancer: a systematic evaluation of available data. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2013.
  8. Cui X, Xie Y, Chen M, et al. Statin use and risk of pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis. Cancer Causes Control 2012;23(7):1099-111.
  9. Aune D, Chan DS, Vieira AR. Dietary fructose, carbohydrates, glycemic indices and pancreatic cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Ann Oncol 2012;23(10):2536-46.
  10. Qin B, Xun P, He K. Fish or long-chain (n-3) PUFA intake is not associated with pancreatic cancer risk in a meta-analysis and systematic review. J Nutr 2012;142(6):1067-73.
  11. Genkinger JM, Wang M, Li R, et al. Dairy products and pancreatic cancer risk: a pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies. Ann Oncol 2014.
  12. Nie K, Xing Z, Huang W, et al. Coffee intake and risk of pancreatic cancer: an updated meta-analysis of prospective studies. Minerva Med. 2016 Aug;107(4):270-8.
  13. Liu SL, Zhao YP, Dai MH, et al. Vitamin D status and the risk of pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis. Chin Med J (Engl) 2013;126(17):3356-9.
  14. Bjelakovic G, Gluud LL, Nikolova D, et al. Vitamin D supplementation for prevention of cancer in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014;6:CD007469.
  15. Chen J, Jiang W, Shao L, et al. Association between intake of antioxidants and pancreatic cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2016 Jun 30:1-13.
  16. Xie L, Mo M1, Jia HX, et al. Association between dietary nitrate and nitrite intake and sitespecific cancer risk: evidence from observational studies.Oncotarget. 2016 Jul 29. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.
  17. Shen QW, Yao QY. Total fat consumption and pancreatic cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2014.
  18. Wahi MM, Shah N, Schrock CE, et al. Reproductive factors and risk of pancreatic cancer in women: a review of the literature. Ann Epidemiol 2009;19(2):103-11.
  19. Chen K, Zhang Q, Peng M, et al. Relationship between tea consumption and pancreatic cancer risk: a meta-analysis based on prospective cohort studies and case-control studies. Eur J Cancer Prev 2014;23(5):353-60.
  20. Koushik A, Spiegelman D, Albanes D, et al. Intake of fruits and vegetables and risk of pancreatic cancer in a pooled analysis of 14 cohort studies. Am J Epidemiol 2012;176(5):373-86.
  21. Cao L, Tong H, Xu G, et al. Systemic lupus erythematous and malignancy risk: a meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2015 Apr 17;10(4):e0122964.
Last reviewed:

Cancer stats explained

See information and explanations on terminology used for statistics and reporting of cancer, and the methods used to calculate some of our statistics.

Citation

You are welcome to reuse this Cancer Research UK content for your own work.
Credit us as authors by referencing Cancer Research UK as the primary source. Suggested styles are:

Web content: Cancer Research UK, full URL of the page, Accessed [month] [year].
Publications: Cancer Research UK ([year of publication]), Name of publication, Cancer Research UK.
Graphics (when reused unaltered): Credit: Cancer Research UK.
Graphics (when recreated with differences): Based on a graphic created by Cancer Research UK.

When Cancer Research UK material is used for commercial reasons, we encourage a donation to our life-saving research.
Send a cheque payable to Cancer Research UK to: Cancer Research UK, Angel Building, 407 St John Street, London, EC1V 4AD or

Donate online

Rate this page:

Currently rated: 2.2 out of 5 based on 11 votes
Thank you!
We've recently made some changes to the site, tell us what you think

Share this page