Testicular cancer incidence statistics

Cases

New cases of testicular cancer, 2013, UK

 

Proportion of all cases

Percentage testicular cancer is of total cancer cases, 2013, UK

 

Age

Age that almost half of testicular cancer cases are diagnosed, 2011-2013, UK

 

Trend since 1970s

Testicular cancer incidence rates have increased since the late 1970s, GB

 

Testicular cancer is the 16th most common cancer among males in the UK (2013), accounting for 1% of all new cases of cancer in males.[1-4]

In 2013, there were 2,296 new cases of testicular cancer in the UK.[1-4] The crude incidence rate Open a glossary item shows that there are 7 new testicular cancer cases for every 100,000 males in the UK.

The European age-standardised incidence rates Open a glossary item (AS rates) do not differ significantly between the constituent countries of the UK.[1-4]

Testicular Cancer (C62), Number of New Cases, Crude and European Age-Standardised (AS) Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, Males, UK, 2013

England Wales Scotland Northern Ireland UK
Cases 1,954 95 185 62 2,296
Crude Rate 7.4 6.3 7.2 6.9 7.3
AS Rate 7.2 6.6 7.0 6.7 7.1
AS Rate - 95% LCL 6.9 5.3 6.0 5.0 6.9
AS Rate - 95% UCL 7.5 7.9 8.0 8.4 7.4

95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and upper confidence limits Open a glossary item around the AS Rate. Open a glossary item

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

Testicular cancer incidence rates throughout the UK vary significantly between cancer networks, with the highest rates in the south west, northern England, and areas of Scotland and Wales, and the lowest rates in London and eastern England.[5,6] This may reflect demographic (e.g. ethnicity) variation between regions.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/search/index.html?newquery=cancer+registrations.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, February 2015. Similar data can be found here:http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242pid=59080.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, March 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.
  5. NCIN, Cancer Incidence and Mortality by Cancer Network, UK, 2005. London: NCIN; 2008.
  6. Testicular cancer (C62) European age-standardised incidence rates by UK Health Boundaries, males, 2008-2010. These data were extracted from the UK Cancer Information Service, version 4.5b 001 on 06/01/2014
Last reviewed:

Testicular cancer incidence is strongly related to age, with the highest incidence rates overall being in younger males – the converse pattern to most cancers. In the UK in 2011-2013, on average each year almost half (47%) of cases were diagnosed in males aged under 35.[1-4]

Age-specific incidence rates rise sharply from around age 15-19, peak in the 30-34 age group, and subsequently drop sharply, rising slightly in males aged 90+.[1-4]

Testicular Cancer (C62), Average Number of New Cases per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates, Males, UK, 2011-2013

The age distribution of testicular cancer cases may reflect an association with pubertal hormones.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/search/index.html?newquery=cancer+registrations.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, February 2015. Similar data can be found here:http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242pid=59080.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, March 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.
Last reviewed:

Testicular cancer incidence rates have increased by 90% in males in Great Britain since the late 1970s.[1-3] This includes an increase followed by stability during this time.

European age-standardised Open a glossary item (AS) incidence rates increased by 82% between 1979-1981 and 2004-2006, but have since remained stable.[1-3]

Testicular Cancer (C62), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, Great Britain, 1979-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

Over the last decade in the UK (between 2002-2004 and 2011-2013), testicular cancer AS incidence rates in males have increased by 11%.[1-4]

Testicular Cancer (C62), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, UK, 1993-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

Testicular cancer incidence trends are difficult to explain in terms of prevalence of risk factors or changes in diagnostic techniques or data recording.[5]

Testicular cancer incidence rates have increased overall in most adult age groups in Great Britain since the late 1970s, though generally this includes an increase followed by stability.[1-3] The largest increase has been in men aged 50-59, with European AS incidence rates increasing by 120% between 1979-1981 and 2011-2013. This overall increase included a 17% decrease in rates between 1999-2001 and 2003-2005, followed by a 36% increase since 2003-2005. In younger adult males, rates increased until the late 1990s (an 85% and 93% increase between 1979-1981 and 1999-2001 in 0-24 and 25-49 age groups, respectively) but have since remained stable. The pattern of increase in males aged 60-69 differs slightly to the other age groups as incidence rates remained stable until 2001-2003, but have since increased by 52%. In men aged 70-79, rates have remained stable since 1979-1981. Rates in males aged 80+ have decreased by 52% between 1979-1981 and 2011-2013.

Testicular Cancer (C62), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, by Age, Great Britain, 1979-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/search/index.html?newquery=cancer+registrations.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, February 2015. Similar data can be found here:http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242pid=59080.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, June 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.
  5. Le Cornet C, Lortet-Tieulent J, Forman D, et al. Testicular cancer incidence to rise by 25% by 2025 in Europe? Model-based predictions in 40 countries using population-based registry data. Eur J Cancer 2013. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2013.11.035.
Last reviewed:

The largest proportion of testicular cancer cases occur in descended testicles Open a glossary item, with a smaller proportion in undescended testicles Open a glossary item (2010-2012).[1-4] This largely reflects that undescended testicles are less common than descended testicles, and testicular cancer risk is higher in undescended testicles.

A large proportion of cases did not have further details about the affected testicle recorded in cancer registry data.[1-4]

Testicular Cancer (C62), Percentage Distribution of Cases Diagnosed By Anatomical Site, UK, 2010-2012

Cases and percentages may not sum due to rounding

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, June 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/CancerInformation/.
Last reviewed:

95% of testicular tumours are germ-cell tumours Open a glossary item (GCTs), 4% are lymphomas Open a glossary item and the remaining 1% is composed of various rare histologies Open a glossary item. Lymphomas are nearly always found in men aged over 50 and are generally treated as a different disease entity from GCTs.

GCTs can be divided into two main groups: about 40-45% are seminomas Open a glossary item and a similar percentage are nonseminomas.

The nonseminoma group contains a variety of histological subtypes including malignant teratoma differentiated (MTD), malignant teratoma intermediate (MTI) and malignant teratoma undifferentiated (MTU).

Nonseminomas tend to occur on average ten years earlier than seminomas. Incidence of nonseminomas peaks in the 20-35 age group while incidence of seminomas peaks in the 30-45 age group. Some GCTs (10-15%) are a mixture of seminoma and nonseminoma and have a peak age incidence halfway between the nonseminomas and seminomas. They are usually classified and treated as nonseminomas.

GCTs are thought to develop from a non-invasive lesion Open a glossary item called carcinoma in situ [glossary - carcinoma in situ] (CIS) of the testis (also called intratubular germ-cell neoplasia unclassified (IGCNU) and testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN)), whose malignant transformation is likely to be influenced by hormones at or after puberty.[1,2]

References

  1. Horwich A, Shipley J, Huddart R. Testicular germ-cell cancer.The Lancet, 2006. 367(9512): p. 754.
  2. Rajpert-De Meyts E, Bartkova J, Samson M, et al. The emerging phenotype of the testicular carcinoma in situ germ cell. Apmis, 2003. 111(1): p. 267-78; discussion 278-9.
Last reviewed:

The lifetime risk of developing testicular cancer is around 1 in 195 for men, in 2012 in the UK.[1]

The lifetime risk for testicular cancer has been calculated to account for the possibility that someone can have more than one diagnosis of testicular cancer over the course of their lifetime (‘Adjusted for Multiple Primaries’ (AMP) method).[2]

References

  1. Lifetime risk estimates calculated by the Statistical Information Team at Cancer Research UK. Based on data provided by the Office of National Statistics, ISD Scotland, the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit and the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry, on request, December 2013 to July 2014.
  2. Sasieni PD, Shelton J, Ormiston-Smith N, et al. What is the lifetime risk of developing cancer?: The effect of adjusting for multiple primaries. Br J Cancer, 2011. 105(3): p. 460-5.
Last reviewed:

There is evidence for a small association between testicular cancer incidence and deprivation in England, with testicular cancer being one of the few cancers where incidence rates are lower for more deprived males.[1] England-wide data for 2006-2010 show European age-standardised Open a glossary item incidence rates are 16% lower for males living in the most deprived areas compared with the least deprived.[1]

Testicular Cancer (C62), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates by Deprivation Quintile, Males, England, 2006-2010

The estimated deprivation gradient in testicular cancer incidence between males living in the most and least deprived areas in England has not changed in the period 1996-2010.[1] It has been estimated that there would have been around 80 more cancer cases each year in England during 2006-2010 if all males experienced the same incidence rates as the least deprived.[1]

Last reviewed:

Incidence rates for White males with testicular cancer is significantly higher than rates for Asian or Black males.[1]

Analysis of the Thames Cancer Registry included unknown data. For testicular cancer, 194 590 cases were identified; 33% had no known ethnicity.

Last reviewed:

In the UK around 18,600 people were still alive at the end of 2006, up to ten years after being diagnosed with testicular cancer.[1]

Testicular Cancer (C62), One, Five and Ten Year Cancer Prevalence, UK, 31st December 2006

1 Year Prevalence 5 Year Prevalence 10 Year Prevalence
Male 1,982 9,473 18,562

Worldwide, it is estimated that there were more than 201,000 men still alive in 2008, up to five years after their diagnosis.[2]

References

  1. National Cancer Intelligence Network (NCIN). One, Five and Ten Year Cancer Prevalence by Cancer Network, UK, 2006. London: NCIN; 2010.
  2. Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, et al. GLOBOCAN 2008 v1.2, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 10 [Internet] Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2010. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr. Accessed May 2011.
Last reviewed:

Although the incidence of testicular cancer is low throughout the world, it is estimated to have doubled in the last 40 years and there is appreciable variation between countries.[1]

The highest rates of testicular cancer are reported for white Caucasian populations in industrialised countries, particularly in western and northern Europe and Australia/New Zealand, while the disease is generally rare in non-Caucasian populations - the New Zealand Maoris being the exception.[2,3]

Testicular Cancer (C62), World Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, World Regions, 2008 Estimates

Overall, rates of testicular cancer in the developed regions of the world are five times higher than those in the less developed regions. Within North America, the consistently lower rates reported for black Americans compared with white Americans suggest a genetic component to the disease, while the rates for Asian and Hispanic men are intermediate between those of white and black Americans.[4]

Within the European Union (EU), there is an approximately five-fold variation in incidence between countries with the highest and lowest incidence rates. For example, Denmark reports age-standardised rates (ASRs) of around 10 per 100,000, while Romania and Greece have ASRs of less than 2 per 100,000. The UK ASR (6.9 per 100,000) is above the EU average.[5]

Testicular Cancer (C62), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, EU-27 Countries, 2008 Estimates

Across the UK, higher rates of testicular cancer are reported in Scotland and the south of England, where incidence rates are more than 8 per 100,000 men. Rates in the north of England are around 7 per 100,000, and in eastern England and London around 6 per 100,000.[6] Lower rates recorded in urban areas may reflect the fact that urban populations generally have a higher percentage of minority ethnic groups with a lower testicular cancer risk than the general UK population.

References

  1. Huyghe E, Matsuda T, Thonneau P. Increasing incidence of testicular cancer worldwide: a review. J Urol 2003:170(1):5-11.
  2. Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, et al. GLOBOCAN 2008 v1.2, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 10 [Internet] Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2010. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr. Accessed May 2011.
  3. Wilkinson TJ, Colls BM, Schluter PJ. Increased incidence of germ cell testicular cancer in New Zealand Maoris. Br J Cancer 1992:65(5):769-71.
  4. SEER. Cancer Statistics Review 1975-2003. Accessed 2006.
  5. European age-standardised rates calculated by the Statistical Information Team at Cancer Research UK, 2011 using data from GLOBOCAN 2008 v1.2, IARC, version 1.2. http://globocan.iarc.fr
  6. Statistical Information Team, Cancer Research UK, 2011: UK Cancer Information Service, version 4.3c.001, August 2011
Last reviewed:

Cancer Statistics Explained

See information and explanations on terminology used for statistics and reporting of cancer, and the methods used to calculate some of our statistics.

Citation

You are welcome to reuse this Cancer Research UK statistics content for your own work.

Credit us as authors by referencing Cancer Research UK as the primary source. Suggested styles are:

Web content: Cancer Research UK, full URL of the page, Accessed [month] [year]. 

Publications: Cancer Research UK ([year of publication]), Name of publication, Cancer Research UK. 

Rate this page:

Currently rated: 3.5 out of 5 based on 2 votes
Thank you!
We've recently made some changes to the site, tell us what you think

Share this page