Lung cancer mortality statistics

Deaths

Deaths from lung cancer, 2014, UK

Proportion of all deaths

Percentage lung cancer  is of total cancer deaths, 2014, UK

 

Age

Peak rate of lung cancer deaths, 2012-2014, UK

 

Trend over time

Lung cancer mortality rates have changed differently for each sex since the early 1970s, UK

 

Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in the UK (2014), accounting for 22% of all cancer deaths.[1-3] In males, it is the most common cause of cancer death in the UK (23% of all male cancer deaths), whilst it is the most common cause of cancer death in females in the UK (21% of all female cancer deaths).

In 2014, there were 35,895 lung cancer deaths in the UK: 19,563 (55%) in males and 16,332 (45%) in females, giving a male:female ratio of around 12:10.[1-3] The crude mortality rate Open a glossary item shows that there are 62 lung cancer deaths for every 100,000 males in the UK, and 50 for every 100,000 females.

The European age-standardised mortality rates Open a glossary item (AS rates) are significantly higher in Scotland compared with the other constituent countries of the UK for both males and females.[1-3] The mortality rate in Wales is also significantly higher than that in England for females only.[1-3]

Lung Cancer (C33-C34), Number of Deaths, Crude and European Age-Standardised (AS) Mortality Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2014

England Wales Scotland Northern Ireland UK
Male Deaths 15,856 1,070 2,119 518 19,563
Crude Rate 59.2 70.3 81.6 57.4 61.5
AS Rate 72.9 77.0 97.6 78.3 75.3
AS Rate - 95% LCL 71.8 72.4 93.4 71.5 74.3
AS Rate - 95% UCL 74.0 81.6 101.7 85.0 76.4
Female Deaths 12,993 899 1,998 442 16,332
Crude Rate 47.2 57.2 72.6 47.1 49.8
AS Rate 48.4 53.4 71.8 53.7 50.8
AS Rate - 95% LCL 47.5 49.9 68.6 48.7 50.1
AS Rate - 95% UCL 49.2 56.9 74.9 58.7 51.6
Persons Deaths 28,849 1,969 4,117 960 35,895
Crude Rate 53.1 63.7 77.0 52.2 55.6
AS Rate 59.0 63.4 82.5 63.9 61.4
AS Rate - 95% LCL 58.3 60.6 80.0 59.9 60.7
AS Rate - 95% UCL 59.6 66.2 85.0 68.0 62.0

95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and upper confidence limits Open a glossary item around the AS Rate Open a glossary item

Lung cancer mortality rates throughout the UK vary significantly between health boundaries for both males and females, with the highest rates in Scotland and Northern England, and the lowest rates in Southern England.[4,5]

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, Nocember 2015. Similar data can be found here: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/birthsdeathsandmarriages/deaths/bulletins/deathsregistrationsummarytables/previousReleases
  2. Data are provided by Information Services Division (ISD) Scotland on request, November 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.nrscotland.gov.uk/statistics-and-data/statistics/statistics-by-theme/vital-events/vital-events-reference-tables
  3. Data are provided annually by the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency on request, November 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.nisra.gov.uk/demography/default.asp2.htm
  4. NCIN, UK. Cancer e-atlas. European Age-Standardised Mortality Rates, UK (England: former Primary Care Trusts; Wales; Scotland: NHS Health Boards; Northern Ireland: Health and Social Care Trusts), 2009-2011.
  5. NCIN. Cancer Incidence and  Mortality by Cancer Network, UK, 2005. London: NCIN; 2008.
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Lung cancer mortality is strongly related to age, with the highest mortality rates being in older males and females. In the UK in 2012-2014, on average each year almost half (48%) of deaths were in people aged 75 and over.[1-3]

Age-specific mortality rates rise sharply from around age 45-49, with the highest rates in the 85-89 age group. Mortality rates are significantly higher for males than for females in those aged 40-44 and from age 50-54, with no significant differences in younger age groups. This gap is widest at the age of 90+, when the male:female ratio of age-specific rates (to account for the different proportions of males to females in each age group) is around 21:10.[1-3]

Lung Cancer (C33-C34) Average Number of Deaths per Year and Age-Specific Mortality Rates, UK, 2012-2014

For most cancer types, mortality by age largely reflects incidence and survival by age, e.g. typically, higher incidence and lower survival in older people results in higher mortality in older people.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, November 2015. Similar data can be found here: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/birthsdeathsandmarriages/deaths/bulletins/deathsregistrationsummarytables/previousReleases.
  2. Data were provided by the Information Services Division (ISD) Scotland on request, November 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.nrscotland.gov.uk/statistics-and-data/statistics/statistics-by-theme/vital-events/vital-events-reference-tables.
  3. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency on request, November 2015.Similar data can be found here: http://www.nisra.gov.uk/demography/default.asp2.htm
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Lung cancer mortality rates have decreased by 23% in the UK since the early 1970s.[1-3] This includes an increase followed by a decrease for males and an increase followed by a period of stability for females during this period.

For males, European age-standardised Open a glossary item (AS) mortality rates increased by 4% between 1971-1973 and 1978-1980 and then decreased by 54% between 1978-1980 and 2012-2014. For females, rates increased by 92% between 1971-1973 and 2008-2010 and then remained stable from 2008-2010 and 2012-2014.

Over the last decade in the UK (between 2003-2005 and 2012-2014), lung cancer AS mortality rates have decreased by 6% for males and females combined, however this includes a decrease in males (16%) and an increase in females (6%).[1-3]

Lung Cancer (C33-C34), European Age-Standardised Mortality Rates, UK, 1971-2014

For most cancer types, mortality trends largely reflect incidence and survival trends, e.g. increased incidence without sufficient survival improvement results in increased mortality.

Lung cancer mortality rates have decreased overall in males in most of the broad adult age groups in the UK since the early 1970s but have increased in males aged 80+[1-3] The largest decrease has been in males aged 25-49,where rates have decreased by 79% between 1971-1973 and 2012-2014.

Lung Cancer (C33-C34), European Age-Standardised Mortality Rates, By Age, Males, England and Wales, 1971-2014

For most cancer types, mortality trends largely reflect incidence and survival trends, e.g. increased incidence without sufficient survival improvement results in increased mortality.

Lung cancer mortality rates have increased overall in females aged 60-69 and over in the UK since the early 1970s but have decreased in females aged between 25-49 and 50-59.[1-3] The largest increase has been in females aged 80+ ,where rates have increased by 274% between 1971-1973 and 2012-2014. The largest decrease has been in females aged 25-49, where rates have decreased by 53% between 1971-1973 and 2012-2014.

Lung Cancer (C33-C34), European Age-Standardised Mortality Rates, By Age, Females, England and Wales, 1971-2014

Lung cancer mortality trends by age between 1950 and 1970 show the early stages of the patterns seen in the data from 1971 onwards: rates peaked and then started to fall in the youngest age groups first, with each subsequent age group then peaking and falling one after the other.[4-6] This reflects trends by age in smoking prevalence, and reliable cancer incidence data are not available pre-1970s so mortality data from the 1950s and 1960s is important evidence of the association between cigarette smoking trends and lung cancer trends. The drop in general population smoking rates over time is driven by never-smokers not starting smoking, rather than current smokers quitting; younger age groups had their peak smoking rates earlier in the 20th century and have since been increasingly less likely to smoke, while older age groups started smoking at a young age and never gave up, so their smoking rates began to fall only when smokers began to die.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, November 2015. Similar data can be found here: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/birthsdeathsandmarriages/deaths/bulletins/deathsregistrationsummarytables/previousReleases
  2. Data were provided by the Information Services Division (ISD) Scotland on request, November 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.nrscotland.gov.uk/statistics-and-data/statistics/statistics-by-theme/vital-events/vital-events-reference-tables.
  3. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency on request, November 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.nisra.gov.uk/demography/default.asp2.htm.
  4. Swerdlow AJ, dos Santos Silva I, and Doll R. Cancer Incidence and Mortality in England Wales: trends and risk factors. 2001: Oxford University Press.
  5. Doll R and Hill AB. Smoking and carcinoma of the lung. Preliminary report. British  Medical Journal 1950:739-48.
  6. Quinn M, Babb P, Brock A et al. Cancer Trends in England Wales 1950-1999. Vol. SMPS No. 66. 2001: TSO.
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There is evidence for a strong association between lung cancer mortality and deprivation for both males and females in England.[1] England-wide data for 2007-2011 show European age-standardised Open a glossary item mortality rates are 170% higher for males living in the most deprived areas compared with the least deprived, and 176% higher for females.[1]

Lung Cancer (C33-C44), European Age-Standardised Mortality Rates by Deprivation Quintile, England, 2007-2011

The estimated deprivation gradient in lung cancer mortality between people living in the most and least deprived areas in England has not changed in the period 2002-2011. It has been estimated that there would have been around 9,900 fewer lung cancer deaths each year in England during 2007-2011 if all people experienced the same mortality rates as the least deprived.[1]

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Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in Europe, with around nearly 354,000 deaths from lung cancer in 2012 (20% of the total). In Europe (2012), the highest World age-standardised Open a glossary item mortality rates for lung cancer are in Hungary for men and Denmark for women; the lowest rates are in Sweden for men and Belarus for women. UK lung cancer mortality rates are estimated to be the 11th lowest in males in Europe, and 5th highest in females.[1] These data are broadly in line with Europe-specific data available elsewhere.[2]

Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death worldwide, with around 1,590,000 deaths from lung cancer in 2012 (19% of the total). Lung cancer mortality rates are highest in Eastern Asia and lowest in Western Africa, but this partly reflects varying data quality worldwide.[1]

References

  1. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Accessed December 2013. 
  2. Ferlay J, Steliarova-Foucher E, Lortet-Tieulent J, et al.Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in Europe: Estimates for 40 countries in 2012. European Journal of Cancer (2013) 49, 1374-1403.
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Cancer Statistics Explained

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