42% (47% in males and 34% in females) of kidney cancer cases each year in the UK are linked to major lifestyle and other risk factors.
Kidney cancer risk is associated with a number of risk factors.[2,3]
Kidney Cancer Risk Factors
|Increases risk ('sufficient' or 'convincing' evidence')||May increase risk ('limited' or 'probable' evidence)||Decreases risk ('sufficient' or 'convincing' evidence)||May decrease risk ('limited' or 'probable' evidence)|
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) classifications. Find out more about IARC and WCRF/AICR classifications.
a Kidney; b Renal pelvis and ureter; c WCRF/AICR classifies arsenic in drinking water as a possible cause of kidney cancer based on limited-suggestive evidence
- Parkin DM, Boyd L, Walker LC. 16. The fraction of cancer attributable to lifestyle and environmental factors in the UK in 2010. BJC 2011; 105 Suppl 2:S77-81.
- Cogliano VJ, Baan R, Straif K, et al. Preventable exposures associated with human cancers. JNCI 2011; 103:1827-39.
- World Cancer Research Fund/ American Institute for Cancer Research. Food, nutrition, physical activity and the prevention of cancer: A global perspective. Washington DC: AICR, 2007.