42% (47% in males and 34% in females) of kidney cancer cases each year in the UK are linked to major lifestyle and other risk factors.
Kidney cancer risk is associated with a number of risk factors.[2-4]
Kidney Cancer Risk Factors
|Increases risk||Decreases risk|
|'Sufficient' or 'convincing' evidence||
|'Limited' or 'Probable' evidence||
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) classifications.
a Kidney; b Renal pelvis and ureter.
- Parkin DM, Boyd L, Walker LC. 16. The fraction of cancer attributable to lifestyle and environmental factors in the UK in 2010. BJC 2011; 105 Suppl 2:S77-81.
- International Agency for Research on Cancer. List of Classifications by cancer sites with sufficient or limited evidence in humans, Volumes 1 to 116*. Accessed October 2016.
- Lauby-Secretan B, Scoccianti C, Loomis D, et al. Body Fatness and Cancer--Viewpoint of the IARC Working Group. N Engl J Med. 2016 Aug 25;375(8):794-8.
- World Cancer Research Fund / American Institute for Cancer Research. Continuous Update Project Findings & Reports. Accessed October 2016.