Kidney cancer incidence statistics

Cases

New cases of kidney cancer, 2014, UK

 

Proportion of all cases

Percentage kidney cancer is of total cancer cases, 2014, UK

 

Age

Peak rate of kidney cancer cases, 2012-2014, UK

 

Trend over time

Change in kidney cancer incidence rates since the early 1990s, UK

Kidney cancer is the seventh most common cancer in the UK (2014), accounting for 3% of all new cases. In males, it is the fifth most common cancer in the UK (4% of all male cases), whilst it is the 10th most common cancer in females (3% of all female cases).[1-4]

In 2014, there were 12,523 new cases of kidney cancer in the UK: 7,839 (63%) in males and 4,684 (37%) in females, giving a male:female ratio of around 17:10.[1-4] The crude incidence rate shows that there are 25 new kidney cancer cases for every 100,000 males in the UK, and 14 for every 100,000 females.

The European age-standardised rates (AS rates) do not differ significantly between the countries of the UK for either sex.

Kidney Cancer (C64-C66 and C68), Number of New Cases, Crude and European Age-Standardised (AS) Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2014

England Wales Scotland Northern Ireland UK
Male Cases 6,584 373 669 213 7,839
Crude Rate 24.6 24.5 25.8 23.6 24.7
AS Rate 29.0 26.1 29.2 30.2 28.9
AS Rate - 95% LCL 28.3 23.5 27.0 26.2 28.2
AS Rate - 95% UCL 29.7 28.8 31.5 34.3 29.5
Female Cases 3,933 212 432 107 4,684
Crude Rate 14.3 13.5 15.7 11.4 14.3
AS Rate 14.7 12.7 15.5 12.6 14.6
AS Rate - 95% LCL 14.3 11.0 14.1 10.2 14.2
AS Rate - 95% UCL 15.2 14.4 17.0 14.9 15.1
Persons Cases 10,517 585 1,101 320 12,523
Crude Rate 19.4 18.9 20.6 17.4 19.4
AS Rate 21.3 18.8 21.6 20.5 21.1
AS Rate - 95% LCL 20.8 17.3 20.4 18.2 20.8
AS Rate - 95% UCL 21.7 20.4 22.9 22.7 21.5

95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and upper confidence limits round the AS Rate

For kidney cancer, like most cancer types, differences between countries largely reflect risk factor prevalence in years past.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/

About this data

Data is for: UK, 2014, ICD-10 C64-C66 and C68

Last reviewed:

Kidney cancer incidence is strongly related to age, with the highest incidence rates being in older males and females. In the UK in 2012-2014, on average each year half (50%) of cases were diagnosed in people aged 70 and over.[1-4] A small proportion of kidney cancers occur in children.

Age-specific incidence rates rise sharply from around age 45-49, peaking in the 85-89 age group. Incidence rates are higher for males than for females at age 30-34 and above (the gap is not significant in younger age groups), and this gap is widest at 90+, when the male:female incidence ratio of age-specific rates (to account for the different proportions of males to females in each age group) is around 23:10.[1-4]

Kidney Cancer (C64-C66 and C68), Average Number of New Cases per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates, UK, 2012-2014

For kidney cancer, like most cancer types, incidence increases with age. This largely reflects cell DNA damage accumulating over time. Damage can result from biological processes or from exposure to risk factors. A drop or plateau in incidence in the oldest age groups often indicates reduced diagnostic activity perhaps due to general ill health.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2012-2014, ICD-10 C64-C66 and C68

Last reviewed:

Kidney cancer incidence rates have increased by 78% in the UK since the early 1990s.[1-3] This includes a larger overall increase for females than for males. Kidney cancer incidence rates increased by 47% (persons) in Great Britain between 1979-1981 and 1991-1993.[1-3]

For females, European age-standardised (AS) incidence rates have have increased by 86% between 1993-1995 and 2012-2014. For males, rates increased by 69% between 1993-1995 and 2012-2014.

Over the last decade in the UK (between 2003-2005 and 2012-2014), kidney cancer incidence rates have increased by 41% for males and females combined, with a similar increase in females (42%) and males (38%).[1-4]

Kidney Cancer (C64-C66 and C68), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, UK, 1993-2014

Kidney cancer incidence rates have increased overall for most of the broad adult age groups in the UK since the early 1990s.[1-3] The largest increase has been in people aged 80+, with European AS incidence rates increasing by 133% between 1993-1995 and 2012-2014. Incidence rates remained stable in those aged 0-24 over this period of time.

Kidney Cancer (C64-C66 and C68), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, by Age, Persons, UK, 1993-2014​

For kidney cancer, like most cancer types, incidence trends largely reflect changing prevalence of risk factors and improvements in diagnosis and data recording. Recent incidence trends are influenced by risk factor prevalence in years past, and trends by age group reflect risk factor exposure in birth cohorts.[5-10]

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/
  5. Mathew A, Devesa SS, Fraumeni JF Jr, et al. Global increases in kidney cancer incidence, 1973-1992. Eur J Cancer Prev 2002:11(2):171-8.
  6. Jayson M, Sanders H. Increased incidence of serendipitously discovered renal cell carcinoma. Urology 1998:51(2):203-5.
  7. Hollingsworth JM, Miller DC, Daignault S, et al. Rising Incidence of Small Renal Masses: A Need to Reassess Treatment Effect. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006:98(18):1331-1334.
  8. Nguyen MM, Gill IS, Ellison LM. The evolving presentation of renal carcinoma in the United States: trends from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. J Urol 2006:176(6 Pt 1):2397-400
  9. Chow WH, Devesa SS, Warren JL, et al. Rising incidence of renal cell cancer in the United States. JAMA 1999:281(17):1628-31.
  10. Tate R, Iddenden R, Harden P, et al. Increased incidence of renal parenchymal carcinoma in the Northern and Yorkshire region of England, 1978-1997. Eur J Cancer 2003:39: 961-967.

About this data

Data is for UK, 1993-2014, ICD-10 C64-C66 and C68

Last reviewed:

Overall stage at diagnosis

A high proportion (70-82%) of kidney cancer cases in England, Scotland and Northern Ireland have a stage at diagnosis recorded.[1-3]

Kidney cancer patients with a known stage are most commonly diagnosed at stage I (41-47%). More patients with a known stage are diagnosed at an early stage (56% are diagnosed at stage I or II), than a late stage (44% are diagnosed at stage III or IV) in England and Northern Ireland.[1-3]

There are no differences between the proportion of kidney cancer patients diagnosed at an early stage (stages I or II) and a late stage (stages III or IV) in Scotland.[1-3]

Between 25% and 31% of people have metastases at diagnosis (stage IV).[1-3]

The stage distribution for each cancer type will reflect many factors including how the cancer type develops, the way symptoms appear, public awareness of symptoms, how quickly a person goes to see their doctor and how quickly the cancer is recognised and diagnosed by a doctor. It might also relate to whether a national screening programme that can detect early stage disease exists for that cancer type, along with the extent of uptake of that programme.

A cancer type associated with a large proportion of early stage diagnoses could be one that is more likely to be symptomatic at an earlier stage of development, with recognisable symptoms rather than more generic ones.

Kidney Cancer (C64-C66, C68), Proportion of Cases Diagnosed at Each Stage, All Ages, England 2014, Scotland 2013-2014, Northern Ireland 2010-2014

Data should not be compared between countries due to differences in time periods and possible differences in recording of stage at diagnosis.

References

  1. National Cancer Registration and Analysis Service. Stage Breakdown by CCG 2014. London: NCIN; 2016.
  2. ISD Scotland, Detect Cancer Early Staging Data. Scotland: ISD; 2016.
  3. Northern Ireland Cancer Registry, Queens University Belfast, Incidence by stage 2010-2014. Belfast: NICR; 2016.

About this data

Data is for: England 2014 and Scotland 2013-2014 ICD-10 C64, Northern Ireland 2010-2014, ICD-10 C64-C66, C68

Data is not comparable between countries due to differences in time periods and possible differences in how countries record stage at diagnosis.

Last reviewed:

Most kidney cancer cases occur in the kidney, with much smaller proportions in the renal pelvis, ureter and urethra and paraurethral gland (2010-2012).[1-4]

The proportion of cases in each part is similar between males and females.[1-4]

A small proportion of cases did not have the specific part of the kidney recorded in cancer registry data, or overlapped more than one part.[1-4]

Cases and percentages may not sum due to rounding

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2014. Similar data can be found here:
    http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here:
    http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, June 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/CancerInformation/.
Last reviewed:

Kidney cancer incidence rates are projected to rise by 26% in the UK between 2014 and 2035, to 32 cases per 100,000 people by 2035.[1] This includes a larger increase for males than for females.

For males, kidney cancer European age-standardised (AS) incidence rates in the UK are projected to rise by 28% between 2014 and 2035, to 44 cases per 100,000 by 2035.[1] For females, rates are projected to rise by 18% between 2014 and 2035, to 20 cases per 100,000 by 2035.[1]

Kidney cancer (C64-C66, C68), Observed and Projected Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, by Sex, UK, 1979-2035

It is projected that 21,732 cases of kidney cancer (14,259 in males, 7,474 in females) will be diagnosed in the UK in 2035.

References

  1. Smittenaar CR, Petersen KA, Stewart K, Moitt N. Cancer Incidence and Mortality Projections in the UK Until 2035. Brit J Cancer 2016.

About this data

Data is for: UK, 1979-2014 (observed), 2015-2035 (projected), ICD-10 C64-C66, C68

Projections are based on observed incidence and mortality rates and therefore implicitly include changes in cancer risk factors, diagnosis and treatment. It is not possible to assess the statistical significance of changes between 2014 (observed) and 2035 (projected) figures. Confidence intervals are not calculated for the projected figures. Projections are by their nature uncertain because unexpected events in future could change the trend. It is not sensible to calculate a boundary of uncertainty around these already uncertain point estimates. Changes are described as 'increase' or 'decrease' if there is any difference between the point estimates.

More on projections methodology

Last reviewed:

The lifetime risk of developing kidney cancer is 1 in 52 for men and 1 in 87 for women, in 2012 in the UK.[1]

The lifetime risk for kidney cancer has been calculated to account for the possibility that someone can have more than one diagnosis of kidney cancer over the course of their lifetime (‘Adjusted for Multiple Primaries’ (AMP) method).[2]

References

  1. Lifetime risk estimates calculated by the Statistical Information Team at Cancer Research UK. Based on data provided by the Office of National Statistics, ISD Scotland, the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit and the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry, on request, December 2013 to July 2014.
  2. Sasieni PD, Shelton J, Ormiston-Smith N, et al. What is the lifetime risk of developing cancer?: The effect of adjusting for multiple primaries. Br J Cancer, 2011. 105(3): p. 460-5.
Last reviewed:

There is evidence for an association between kidney cancer incidence and deprivation for both males and females in England (though the association is small for males).[1] England-wide data for 2006-2010 show European age-standardised incidence rates are 19% higher for males living in the most deprived areas compared with the least deprived, and 33% higher for females.[1]

Kidney Cancer (C64-C66, C48), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates by Deprivation Quintile, England, 2006-2010

The estimated deprivation gradient in kidney cancer incidence between people living in the most and least deprived areas in England has widened in the period 1996-2010.[1] It has been estimated that there would have been around 640 fewer cancer cases each year in England during 2006-2010 if all people experienced the same incidence rates as the least deprived.[1]

Last reviewed:

Age-standardised rates for White males with kidney cancer range from 11.2 to 11.8 per 100,000. Rates for Asian males are significantly lower, ranging from 5.3 to 9.2 per 100,000 and the rates for Black males are also significantly lower, ranging from 5.9 to 10.8 per 100,000. For females there is a different pattern - the age-standardised rates for White females range from 5.7 to 6.0 per 100,000. Rates for Black females are similar, ranging from 3.0 to 6.0 per 100,000, whereas Asian females are significantly lower, ranging from 1.9 to 3.8 per 100,000.[1]

Ranges are given because of the analysis methodology used to account for missing and unknown data. For kidney cancer, 25,886 cases were identified; 21% had no known ethnicity.

Last reviewed:

In the UK around 26,500 people were still alive at the end of 2006, up to ten years after being diagnosed with kidney cancer.[1]

Kidney Cancer (C64-C66 and C68), One, Five and Ten Year Cancer Prevalence, UK, 31st December 2006

1 Year Prevalence 5 Year Prevalence 10 Year Prevalence
Male 3,186 10,771 16,468
Female 1,894 6,466 10,035
Persons 5,080 17,237 26,503

Worldwide, it is estimated that there were around 744,000 men and women still alive in 2008, up to five years after their diagnosis.[2]

References

  1. National Cancer Intelligence Network (NCIN). One, five and ten-year cancer prevalence by cancer network, UK, 2006. NCIN; London: 2010.
  2. Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, et al. GLOBOCAN 2008 v1.2, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 10 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2010. Available from http://globocan.iarc.fr/. Accessed May 2011.
Last reviewed:

Kidney cancer (C64-C66) is the seventh most common cancer in Europe, with more than 115,000 new cases diagnosed in 2012 (3% of the total). In Europe (2012), the highest World age-standardised incidence rates for kidney cancer are in the Czech Republic for both men and women; the lowest rates are in Macedonia for men and Cyprus for women. UK kidney cancer incidence rates are estimated to be the 19th lowest in males in Europe, and the 17th highest in females.[1] These data are broadly in line with Europe-specific data available elsewhere.[2]

Kidney cancer (C64-C66) is the 13th most common cancer worldwide, with around 338,000 new cases diagnosed in 2012 (2% of the total). Kidney cancer incidence rates are highest in parts of Northern America and lowest in Middle Africa, but this partly reflects varying data quality worldwide.[2]

Variation between countries may reflect different prevalence of risk factors, use of screening and diagnostic methods.

References

  1. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed December 2013. 
  2. Ferlay J, Steliarova-Foucher E, Lortet-Tieulent J, et al.Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in Europe: Estimates for 40 countries in 2012. European Journal of Cancer (2013) 49, 1374-1403.
Last reviewed:

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