Kidney cancer incidence statistics

Cases

New cases of kidney cancer, 2013, UK

 

Proportion of all cases

Percentage kidney cancer is of total cancer cases, 2013, UK

 

Age

Age that half of kidney cancer cases are diagnosed, 2011-2013, UK

 

Trend since 1970s

Kidney cancer incidence rates have increased since the late 1970s, GB

 

Kidney cancer is the seventh most common cancer in the UK (2013), accounting for 3% of all new cases. In males, it is the fifth most common cancer in the UK (4% of all male cases), whilst it is the 10th most common cancer in females (3% of all female cases).[1-4]

In 2013, there were 11,873 new cases of kidney cancer in the UK: 7,455 (63%) in males and 4,418 (37%) in females, giving a male:female ratio of around 17:10.[1-4] The crude incidence rate Open a glossary item shows that there are 21 new kidney cancer cases for every 100,000 males in the UK, and 14 for every 100,000 females.

The European age-standardised rates Open a glossary item (AS rates) do not differ significantly between the countries of the UK for either sex.

Kidney Cancer (C64-C66 and C68), Number of New Cases, Crude and European Age-Standardised (AS) Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2013

England Wales Scotland Northern Ireland UK
Male Cases 6,254 357 655 189 7,455
Crude Rate 23.6 23.6 25.3 21.1 23.6
AS Rate 28.1 25.9 29.0 27.6 28.0
AS Rate - 95% LCL 27.4 23.2 26.8 23.7 27.4
AS Rate - 95% UCL 28.8 28.5 31.2 31.5 28.7
Female Cases 3,646 232 405 135 4,418
Crude Rate 13.3 14.8 14.8 14.5 13.6
AS Rate 13.9 14.1 14.9 16.2 14.1
AS Rate - 95% LCL 13.5 12.3 13.4 13.5 13.7
AS Rate - 95% UCL 14.4 15.9 16.3 19.0 14.5
Persons Cases 9,900 589 1,060 324 11,873
Crude Rate 18.4 19.1 19.9 17.7 18.5
AS Rate 20.4 19.3 21.1 21.3 20.4
AS Rate - 95% LCL 20.0 17.7 19.9 19.0 20.0
AS Rate - 95% UCL 20.8 20.9 22.4 23.7 20.8

95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and upper confidence limits Open a glossary item round the AS Rate Open a glossary item

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

Kidney cancer incidence rates throughout the UK report vary significantly between the former cancer networks, with higher than average rates in parts of Scotland, Wales, south west England and northern England, and lower than average rates in parts of London and south-east England, and the West Midlands.[5,6]

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, February 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, March 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/
  5. National Cancer Intelligence Network (NCIN). Cancer Incidence and Mortality by Cancer Network, UK, 2005. NCIN; London: 2008. 
  6. National Cancer Intelligence Network (NCIN). Cancer e-Atlas. Accessed January 2014
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Kidney cancer incidence is strongly related to age, with the highest incidence rates being in older males and females. In the UK in 2011-2013, on average each year half (50%) of cases were diagnosed in people aged 70 and over.[1-4] A small proportion of kidney cancers occur in children.

Age-specific incidence rates rise sharply from around age 45-49, peaking in the 85-89 age group. Incidence rates are higher for males than for females at age 35-39 and above (the gap is not significant in younger age groups), and this gap is widest at 90+, when the male:female incidence ratio of age-specific rates (to account for the different proportions of males to females in each age group) is around 23:10.[1-4]

Kidney Cancer (C64-C66 and C68), Average Number of New Cases per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates, UK, 2011-2013

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, June 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.
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Kidney cancer incidence rates have increased by 166% in Great Britain since the late 1970s.[1-4] This includes a larger overall increase for females than for males.

For males, European age-standardised Open a glossary item (AS) incidence rates have have increased by 149% between 1979-1981 and 2011-2013. For females, rates increased by 175% between 1979-1981 and 2011-2013.

Kidney Cancer (C64-C66 and C68), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, Great Britain, 1979-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

Over the last decade in the UK (between 2002-2004 and 2011-2013), kidney cancer incidence rates have increased by 38% for males and females combined, with a similar increase in males (35%) and females (40%).[1-4]

Kidney Cancer (C64-C66 and C68), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, UK, 1993-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

Kidney cancer incidence trends probably reflect changing prevalence of risk factors, with recent incidence trends influenced by risk factor prevalence in years past. Incidental detection of asymptomatic disease through new imaging methods also plays some part.[5-10]

Kidney cancer incidence rates have increased overall for most of the broad adult age groups in Great Britain since the late 1970s.[1-3] The largest increase has been in people aged 80 and over, with European AS incidence rates increasing by more than three times (279% increase) between 1979-1981 and 2011-2013. Incidence rates remained stable in those aged 0-24 over this period of time.

Kidney Cancer (C64-C66 and C68), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, by Age, Persons, Great Britain, 1979-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, February 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, March 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.
  5. Mathew A, Devesa SS, Fraumeni JF Jr, et al. Global increases in kidney cancer incidence, 1973-1992. Eur J Cancer Prev 2002:11(2):171-8.
  6. Jayson M, Sanders H. Increased incidence of serendipitously discovered renal cell carcinoma. Urology 1998:51(2):203-5.
  7. Hollingsworth JM, Miller DC, Daignault S, et al. Rising Incidence of Small Renal Masses: A Need to Reassess Treatment Effect. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006:98(18):1331-1334.
  8. Nguyen MM, Gill IS, Ellison LM. The evolving presentation of renal carcinoma in the United States: trends from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. J Urol 2006:176(6 Pt 1):2397-400
  9. Chow WH, Devesa SS, Warren JL, et al. Rising incidence of renal cell cancer in the United States. JAMA 1999:281(17):1628-31.
  10. Tate R, Iddenden R, Harden P, et al. Increased incidence of renal parenchymal carcinoma in the Northern and Yorkshire region of England, 1978-1997. Eur J Cancer 2003:39: 961-967.
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Staging completeness for kidney cancer is moderate in England, with 82% of kidney cancers recorded with a known stage at diagnosis in 2014.[1]

Kidney Cancer (C64), Proportion of Cases Diagnosed at Each Stage, England 2014

People diagnosed with kidney cancer with a known stage most commonly present at stage I (47%), in England. More people with a known stage are diagnosed at an early stage (56% diagnosed at stage I or II) than an advanced stage (44% diagnosed at stage III or IV). More than a quarter (25%) of people have metastases Open a glossary item at diagnosis (stage IV).[1]

References

  1. National Cancer Registration and Analysis Service. Stage Breakdown by CCG 2014. London: NCIN; 2016.

About this data

Data is for: England, 2014, ICD-10 C64

Stage at diagnosis data is not yet routinely available for the UK due to inconsistencies in the collecting and recording of staging data in the past.

Last reviewed:

Most kidney cancer cases occur in the kidney, with much smaller proportions in the renal pelvis, ureter and urethra and paraurethral gland (2010-2012).[1-4]

The proportion of cases in each part is similar between males and females.[1-4]

A small proportion of cases did not have the specific part of the kidney recorded in cancer registry data, or overlapped more than one part.[1-4]

Kidney Cancer (C64-C66, C68), Percentage Distribution of Cases Diagnosed By Anatomical Site, UK, 2010-2012

Cases and percentages may not sum due to rounding

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2014. Similar data can be found here:
    http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here:
    http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, June 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/CancerInformation/.
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The lifetime risk of developing kidney cancer is 1 in 52 for men and 1 in 87 for women, in 2012 in the UK.[1]

The lifetime risk for kidney cancer has been calculated to account for the possibility that someone can have more than one diagnosis of kidney cancer over the course of their lifetime (‘Adjusted for Multiple Primaries’ (AMP) method).[2]

References

  1. Lifetime risk estimates calculated by the Statistical Information Team at Cancer Research UK. Based on data provided by the Office of National Statistics, ISD Scotland, the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit and the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry, on request, December 2013 to July 2014.
  2. Sasieni PD, Shelton J, Ormiston-Smith N, et al. What is the lifetime risk of developing cancer?: The effect of adjusting for multiple primaries. Br J Cancer, 2011. 105(3): p. 460-5.
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There is evidence for an association between kidney cancer incidence and deprivation for both males and females in England (though the association is small for males).[1] England-wide data for 2006-2010 show European age-standardised Open a glossary item incidence rates are 19% higher for males living in the most deprived areas compared with the least deprived, and 33% higher for females.[1]

Kidney Cancer (C64-C66, C48), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates by Deprivation Quintile, England, 2006-2010

The estimated deprivation gradient in kidney cancer incidence between people living in the most and least deprived areas in England has widened in the period 1996-2010.[1] It has been estimated that there would have been around 640 fewer cancer cases each year in England during 2006-2010 if all people experienced the same incidence rates as the least deprived.[1]

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Age-standardised rates for White males with kidney cancer range from 11.2 to 11.8 per 100,000. Rates for Asian males are significantly lower, ranging from 5.3 to 9.2 per 100,000 and the rates for Black males are also significantly lower, ranging from 5.9 to 10.8 per 100,000. For females there is a different pattern - the age-standardised rates for White females range from 5.7 to 6.0 per 100,000. Rates for Black females are similar, ranging from 3.0 to 6.0 per 100,000, whereas Asian females are significantly lower, ranging from 1.9 to 3.8 per 100,000.[1]

Ranges are given because of the analysis methodology used to account for missing and unknown data. For kidney cancer, 25,886 cases were identified; 21% had no known ethnicity.

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In the UK around 26,500 people were still alive at the end of 2006, up to ten years after being diagnosed with kidney cancer.[1]

Kidney Cancer (C64-C66 and C68), One, Five and Ten Year Cancer Prevalence, UK, 31st December 2006

1 Year Prevalence 5 Year Prevalence 10 Year Prevalence
Male 3,186 10,771 16,468
Female 1,894 6,466 10,035
Persons 5,080 17,237 26,503

Worldwide, it is estimated that there were around 744,000 men and women still alive in 2008, up to five years after their diagnosis.[2]

References

  1. National Cancer Intelligence Network (NCIN). One, five and ten-year cancer prevalence by cancer network, UK, 2006. NCIN; London: 2010.
  2. Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, et al. GLOBOCAN 2008 v1.2, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 10 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2010. Available from http://globocan.iarc.fr/. Accessed May 2011.
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Kidney cancer (C64-C66) is the seventh most common cancer in Europe, with more than 115,000 new cases diagnosed in 2012 (3% of the total). In Europe (2012), the highest World age-standardised incidence rates for kidney cancer are in the Czech Republic for both men and women; the lowest rates are in Macedonia for men and Cyprus for women. UK kidney cancer incidence rates are estimated to be the 19th lowest in males in Europe, and the 17th highest in females.[1] These data are broadly in line with Europe-specific data available elsewhere.[2]

Kidney cancer (C64-C66) is the 13th most common cancer worldwide, with around 338,000 new cases diagnosed in 2012 (2% of the total). Kidney cancer incidence rates are highest in parts of Northern America and lowest in Middle Africa, but this partly reflects varying data quality worldwide.[2]

Variation between countries may reflect different prevalence of risk factors, use of screening and diagnostic methods.

References

  1. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed December 2013. 
  2. Ferlay J, Steliarova-Foucher E, Lortet-Tieulent J, et al.Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in Europe: Estimates for 40 countries in 2012. European Journal of Cancer (2013) 49, 1374-1403.
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Cancer Statistics Explained

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