Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) incidence statistics

Cases

New cases of chronic myeloid leukaemia, 2014, UK

 

Proportion of all cases

Percentage chronic myeloid leukaemia is of total cancer cases, 2014, UK

 

Age

Peak rate of chronic myeloid leukaemia cases, 2012-2014, UK

 

 

Trend since 1970s

Chronic myeloid leukaemia incidence rates have decreased since the late 1970s, GB

 

Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) accounts for less than 1% of all new cancer cases in the UK, and 8% of all leukaemia types combined (2014).[1-4]

In 2013, there were 748 new cases of CML in the UK: 438 (59%) in males and 310 (41%) in females, giving a male:female ratio of around 12:10.[1-4] The crude incidence rate Open a glossary item shows that there is around 1 new CML case for every 100,000 males in the UK, and less than 1 for every 100,000 females.

For males European age-standardised incidence rates Open a glossary item (AS rates) are significantly higher in Wales compared with other UK countries. Rates do not differ significantly between the other constituent countries of the UK for either sex.[1-4]

Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (C92.1), Number of New Cases, Crude and European Age-Standardised (AS) Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2014

England Wales Scotland Northern Ireland UK
Male Cases 365 35 30 8 438
Crude Rate 1.4 2.3 1.2 0.9 1.4
AS Rate 1.5 2.6 1.2 1.0 1.5
AS Rate - 95% LCL 1.4 1.7 0.8 0.3 1.4
AS Rate - 95% UCL 1.7 3.4 1.7 1.6 1.7
Female Cases 266 13 26 5 310
Crude Rate 1.0 0.8 0.9 0.5 0.9
AS Rate 1.0 0.8 0.9 0.6 1.0
AS Rate - 95% LCL 0.9 0.4 0.6 0.1 0.9
AS Rate - 95% UCL 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.1 1.1
Persons Cases 631 48 56 13 748
Crude Rate 1.2 1.6 1.0 0.7 1.2
AS Rate 1.2 1.6 1.1 0.7 1.2
AS Rate - 95% LCL 1.1 1.1 0.8 0.3 1.1
AS Rate - 95% UCL 1.3 2.1 1.4 1.2 1.3

95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and upper confidence limits Open a glossary item around the AS Rate Open a glossary item

For chronic myeloid leukaemia, there are few established risk factors therefore differences between countries largely reflect differences in diagnosis and data recording.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/

About this data

Data is for: UK, 2014, ICD-10 C92.1

Last reviewed:

Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) incidence is strongly related to age, with the highest incidence rates being in older males and females. Almost half (48%) of chronic myeloid leukaemia cases in the UK each year are diagnosed in people aged 65 and over (2012-2014).[1-4]

Age-specific incidence rates rise gradually from birth and more steeply from around age 55-59, with the highest rates in the 85-89 age group for males and 90+ age group for females. Incidence rates are higher for males than for females at age 25-29, 70-74 and 80+, with few significant differences in younger age groups. The gap is widest at age 25-29, when the male: female ratio of age-specific incidence rates (to account for the different proportions of males to females in each age group) is around 24:10.[1-4]

Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (C92.1), Average Number of New Cases per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates, UK, 2012-2014

For CML, like most cancer types, incidence increases with age. This largely reflects cell DNA damage accumulating over time. Damage can result from biological processes or from exposure to risk factors. A drop or plateau in incidence in the oldest age groups often indicates reduced diagnostic activity perhaps due to general ill health.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2012-2014, ICD-10 C92.1

Last reviewed:

Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) incidence rates have decreased by 15% in Great Britain since the late 1970s.[1-3] This includes a larger overall increase for males than for females, and for both sexes an increase, then a decrease, then stability during this time.

For males, European age-standardised Open a glossary item (AS) incidence rates increased by 41% between 1979-1981 and 1989-1991, then fell by 44% up to 2002-2004, and have since remained stable – leaving rates in 2011-2013 22% lower compared with 1979-1981. For females, rates increased by 43% between 1979-1981 and 1986-1988, then fell by 38% up to 2002-2004, and have since remained stable – leaving rates in 2011-2013 13% lower compared with 1979-1981.

Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (C92.1), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, Great Britain, 1979-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

Over the last decade in the UK (between 2002-2004 and 2011-2013), CML AS incidence rates have remained stable for males and females combined and separately.[1-3,6]

Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (C92.1), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, UK, 1993-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

CML incidence trends probably reflect improvements in diagnostic techniques and data registration, plus changes in the definition of CML.[5,6]

CML incidence rates have remained stable overall for people aged 50-59 and under in Great Britain since the late 1970s, and decreased overall for older age groups.[1-3] The largest decreases  have been in people aged 60-69, 70-79 and 80+ with European AS incidence rates falling by 25%, 26% and 26%, respectively, between 1979-1981 and 2011-2013 (though this includes an increase followed by a decrease in this time). In the 80+ age group, there was an increase of 79% between 1979-1981and 1987-1989, followed by period of stability (1987-1981 to 1992-1994). Rates then decreased by 56% between 1992-1994 and 2011-2013.

Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (C92.1), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, by Age, Great Britain, 1979-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, February 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, June 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/
  5. Northern and Yorkshire Cancer Registry and Information Service. Haematological malignancies in England. Cancers Diagnosed 2001-2008. London: NCIN; 2013
  6. National Cancer Data Repository (NCDR). Blood Cancers Data Quality Report 2010. London:NCIN.
Last reviewed:

The lifetime risk of developing chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) is around 1 in 840 for men and around 1 in 1,180 for women, in 2012 in the UK.[1]

The lifetime risk for CML has been calculated on the assumption that the possibility of having more than one diagnosis of CML over the course of a lifetime is very low (‘Current Probability’ method).[2]

References

  1. Lifetime risk estimates calculated by the Statistical Information Team at Cancer Research UK. Based on data provided by the Office of National Statistics, ISD Scotland, the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit and the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry, on request, December 2013 to July 2014.
  2. Esteve J, Benhamou E and Raymond L. Descriptive epidemiology. IARC Scientific Publications No.128, Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer, pp 67-68 1994.
Last reviewed:

There is no evidence for an association between chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) incidence and deprivation for either males or females in England.[1] England-wide data for 2006-2010 show European age-standardised Open a glossary item  incidence rates are similar for both males and females living in the most deprived areas compared with the least deprived.[1]

Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia (C921), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates by Deprivation Quintile, England, 2006-2010

The estimated deprivation gradient in CML incidence between people living in the most and least deprived areas in England has not changed in the period 1996-2010.[1]

Last reviewed:

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