Leukaemia (all subtypes combined) incidence statistics

Cases

New cases of leukaemia, 2015, UK

 

Proportion of all cases

Percentage leukaemia is of total cancer cases, 2015, UK

 

Age

Peak rate of leukaemia cases, 2013-2015, UK

Trend over time

Change in leukaemia incidence rates since the early 1990s, UK

 

Leukaemia is the 12th most common cancer in the UK, accounting for 3% of all new cancer cases (2015).[1-4]

In males in the UK, leukaemia is the 10th most common cancer (3% of all new male cancer cases). In females in the UK it is the 12th most common cancer (2% of all new female cancer cases).

59% of leukaemia cases in the UK are in males, and 41% are in females.

Leukaemia incidence rates (European age-standardised (AS) rates Open a glossary item) for persons are significantly higher than the UK average in Wales, significantly lower than the UK average in Northern Ireland and Scotland, and similar to the UK average in England.

Leukaemia (C91-C95), Number of New Cases, Crude and European Age-Standardised (AS) Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2015

  England Scotland Wales Northern Ireland UK
Male Cases 4,998 369 393 120 5,880
Crude Rate 18.5 14.1 25.8 13.2 18.3
AS Rate 21.4 16.1 27.3 16.4 21.2
AS Rate - 95% LCI 20.8 14.4 24.6 13.5 20.6
AS Rate - 95% UCI 22.0 17.7 30.0 19.3 21.7
Female Cases 3,442 242 231 105 4,020
Crude Rate 12.4 8.8 14.7 11.1 12.2
AS Rate 12.5 8.6 13.4 12.0 12.2
AS Rate - 95% LCI 12.1 7.5 11.7 9.7 11.8
AS Rate - 95% UCI 12.9 9.7 15.2 14.3 12.6
Persons Cases 8,440 611 624 225 9,900
Crude Rate 15.4 11.4 20.1 12.2 15.2
AS Rate 16.6 11.9 19.9 13.9 16.3
AS Rate - 95% LCI 16.2 10.9 18.3 12.0 15.9
AS Rate - 95% UCI 16.9 12.8 21.4 15.7 16.6

95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and upper confidence limits Open a glossary item  around the AS Rate Open a glossary item
 

For leukaemia, there are few established risk factors therefore differences between countries largely reflect differences in diagnosis and data recording.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2017. Similar data can be found here: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, August 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, October 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, July 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2015, ICD-10 C91-C95.

Last reviewed:

Leukaemia incidence is strongly related to age, with the highest incidence rates being in older people. In the UK in 2013-2015, on average each year almost 4 in 10 (38%) of new cases were in people aged 75 and over.[1-4

Age-specific incidence rates fall gradually from age 0-4 and remain stable throughout childhood and early adulthood, rates rise sharply from around age 45-49. The highest rates are in the 90+ age group for males and females.

Incidence rates are significantly higher in males than females in a number of (mainly older) age groups. The gap is widest at age 85 to 89, when the age-specific incidence rate is 2 times higher in males than females.

Leukaemia (C91-C95), Average Number of New Cases per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2013-2015

95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and upper confidence limits Open a glossary item around the AS Rate Open a glossary item
 

For leukaemia, like most cancer types, incidence increases with age. This largely reflects cell DNA damage accumulating over time. Damage can result from biological processes or from exposure to risk factors. A drop or plateau in incidence in the oldest age groups often indicates reduced diagnostic activity perhaps due to general ill health.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2017. Similar data can be found here: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, August 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, October 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, July 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2013-2015, ICD-10 C91-C95.

Last reviewed:

Leukaemia European age-standardised (AS) Open a glossary item incidence rates for males and females combined increased by 18% in the UK between 1993-1995 and 2013-2015.[1-4] The increase was of a similar size in males and females.

For males, leukaemia AS incidence rates in the UK increased by 15% between 1993-1995 and 2013-2015. For females, leukaemia AS incidence rates in the UK increased by 14% between 1993-1995 and 2013-2015.

Over the last decade in the UK (between 2003-2005 and 2013-2015), leukaemia AS incidence rates for males and females combined increased by 9%. In males AS incidence rates increased by 8%, and in females rates increased by 7%.

Leukaemia (C91-C95), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, UK, 1993-2015

Leukaemia incidence rates have increased overall in all broad age groups in males and females combined in the UK since the early 1990s.[1-4] Rates in 0-24s have increased by 10%, in 25-49s have increased by 14%, in 50-59s have increased by 17%, in 60-69s have increased by 21%, in 70-79s have increased by 23%, and in 80+s have increased by 12%.

Leukaemia (C91-C95), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, By Age, UK, 1993-2015

For leukaemia there are few established risk factors, therefore increasing incidence in the 1980s and 1990s may largely reflect improvements in diagnosis and data recording.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2017. Similar data can be found here: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, August 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, October 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, July 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 1993-2015, ICD-10 C91-C95.

Last reviewed:

Leukaemia incidence rates are projected to rise by 5% in the UK between 2014 and 2035, to 19 cases per 100,000 people by 2035.[1] This includes an increase for males and a drop for females.

For males, leukaemia European age-standardised (AS) Open a glossary item incidence rates in the UK are projected to rise by 6% between 2014 and 2035, to 26 cases per 100,000 by 2035.[1] For females, rates are projected to fall by 1% between 2014 and 2035, to 13 cases per 100,000 by 2035.[1]

Leukaemia (C91-C95), Observed and Projected Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, by Sex, UK, 1979-2035

 

It is projected that 13,758 cases of leukaemia (8,714 in males, 5,044 in females) will be diagnosed in the UK in 2035.

References

  1. Smittenaar CR, Petersen KA, Stewart K, Moitt N. Cancer Incidence and Mortality Projections in the UK Until 2035. Brit J Cancer 2016.

About this data

Data is for: UK, 1979-2014 (observed), 2015-2035 (projected), ICD-10 C91-C95

Projections are based on observed incidence and mortality rates and therefore implicitly include changes in cancer risk factors, diagnosis and treatment. It is not possible to assess the statistical significance of changes between 2014 (observed) and 2035 (projected) figures. Confidence intervals are not calculated for the projected figures. Projections are by their nature uncertain because unexpected events in future could change the trend. It is not sensible to calculate a boundary of uncertainty around these already uncertain point estimates. Changes are described as 'increase' or 'decrease' if there is any difference between the point estimates.

More on projections methodology

Last reviewed:

The lifetime risk of developing leukaemia (all subtypes combined) is 1 in 63 for men and 1 in 94 for women, in 2012 in the UK.[1]

The lifetime risk for leukaemia has been calculated on the assumption that the possibility of having more than one diagnosis of leukaemia over the course of a lifetime is very low (‘Current Probability’ method).[2]

References

  1. Lifetime risk estimates calculated by the Statistical Information Team at Cancer Research UK. Based on data provided by the Office of National Statistics, ISD Scotland, the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit and the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry, on request, December 2013 to July 2014.
  2. Esteve J, Benhamou E and Raymond L. Descriptive epidemiology. IARC Scientific Publications No.128, Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer, pp 67-68 1994.
Last reviewed:

Age-standardised  Open a glossary itemrates for White males with leukaemia range from 12.3 to 12.9 per 100,000. Rates for Black males are similar, ranging from 7.7 to 14.2 per 100,000 and the rates for Asian males are significantly lower, ranging from 6.3 to 10.6 per 100,000. For females there is a different pattern - the age-standardised rates for White females range from 7.3 to 7.7 per 100,000, and rates for Asian and Black females are similar ranging from 4.1 to 7.3 per 100,000 and 4.7 to 8.9 per 100,000.[1]

Ranges are given because of the analysis methodology used to account for missing and unknown data. For leukaemia, 30,818 cases were identified; 24% had no known ethnicity.

Last reviewed:

In the UK around 27,100 people were still alive at the end of 2006, up to ten years after being diagnosed with leukaemia (all subtypes combined).[1]

Leukaemia (C91-C95), One, Five and Ten Year Cancer Prevalence, UK, 31st December 2006

1 Year Prevalence 5 Year Prevalence 10 Year Prevalence
Male 2,668 10,053 15,738
Female 1,847 7,058 11,430
Persons 4,515 17,111 27,168

Worldwide, it is estimated that there were around 500,000 men and women still alive in 2008, up to five years after their diagnosis.[2]

References

  1. NCIN. One, Five and Ten Year Cancer Prevalence by Cancer Network, UK, 2006. London: NCIN; 2010
  2. Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, et al. GLOBOCAN 2008 v1.2, Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 10 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2010. Available from http://globocan.iarc.fr. Accessed May 2011.

About this data

Data is for: All UK patients who had been diagnosed with leukaemia between 1997 and 2006, ICD-10 C91-95.

Last reviewed:

Leukaemia is the 12th most common cancer in Europe, with around 82,300 new cases diagnosed in 2012 (2% of the total). In Europe (2012), the highest World age-standardised Open a glossary item incidence rates for leukaemia are in Ireland for men and Cyprus for women; the lowest rates are in Bosnia Herzegovina for both men and women. UK leukaemia incidence rates are estimated to be the 14th highest in males in Europe, and 19th lowest in females.[1] These data are broadly in line with Europe-specific data available elsewhere.[2]

Leukaemia is the 11th most common cancer worldwide, with around 352,000 new cases diagnosed in 2012 (2% of the total). Leukaemia incidence rates are highest in Australia/New Zealand and lowest in Western Africa, but this partly reflects varying data quality worldwide.[1]

References

  1. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed December 2013.
  2. Ferlay J, Steliarova-Foucher E, Lortet-Tieulent J, et al.Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in Europe: Estimates for 40 countries in 2012. European Journal of Cancer (2013) 49, 1374-1403.
Last reviewed:

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