Leukaemia (all subtypes combined) incidence statistics

Cases

New cases of leukaemia, 2014, UK

 

Proportion of all cases

Percentage leukaemia is of total cancer cases, 2014, UK

 

Age

Peak rate of leukaemia cases, 2012-2014, UK

Trend since 1970s

Leukaemia incidence rates have increased since the late 1970s, GB

 

Leukaemia (all subtypes combined) is the 12th most common cancer in the UK (2014), accounting for 3% of all new cases. In males, it is the 10th most common cancer (3% of the male cases), whilst it is the 11th (2%) in females.[1-4]

In 2014, there were 9,534 new cases of leukaemia in the UK: 5,744 (60%) in men and 3,790 (40%) in females, giving a male:female ratio of around 15:10.[1-4] The crude incidence rate Open a glossary item shows that there are 18 new leukaemia cases for every 100,000 males in the UK, and 12 for every 100,000 females.

The European age-standardised incidence rate Open a glossary item (AS rate) is significantly lower in Scotland and Northern Ireland when compared with the England and Wales in both males and females. Rates in males are also significantly lower in England compared with Wales. There are no other significant differences between the countries for either sex.[1-4]

Leukaemia (C91-C95), Number of New Cases, Crude and European Age-Standardised (AS) Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2014

England Wales Scotland Northern Ireland UK
Male Cases 4,904 389 347 104 5,744
Crude Rate 18.3 25.6 13.4 11.5 18.1
AS Rate 21.5 27.9 15.3 14.5 21.1
AS Rate - 95% LCL 20.9 25.2 13.7 11.7 20.6
AS Rate - 95% UCL 22.1 30.7 16.9 17.3 21.7
Female Cases 3,230 235 251 74 3,790
Crude Rate 11.7 15.0 9.1 7.9 11.6
AS Rate 11.9 14.0 9.0 8.4 11.7
AS Rate - 95% LCL 11.5 12.2 7.9 6.5 11.3
AS Rate - 95% UCL 12.3 15.8 10.1 10.3 12.0
Persons Cases 8,134 624 598 178 9,534
Crude Rate 15.0 20.2 11.2 9.7 14.8
AS Rate 16.2 20.1 11.8 11.1 15.9
AS Rate - 95% LCL 15.8 18.5 10.9 9.4 15.6
AS Rate - 95% UCL 16.5 21.7 12.8 12.7 16.2

95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and upper confidence limits Open a glossary item around the AS rate Open a glossary item

For leukaemia, there are few established risk factors therefore differences between countries largely reflect differences in diagnosis and data recording.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for: UK, 2014, ICD-10 C91-C95

Last reviewed:

Leukaemia incidence is strongly related to age, with the highest incidence rates being in older males and females. In the UK in 2012-2014, on average each year more than half (52%) of cases were diagnosed in people aged 70 and over.[1-4]

Age-specific incidence rates fall gradually from age 0-4 and remain stable throughout childhood and early adulthood. Rates rise sharply from around age 45-49, with the highest rates in the 85-89 age group in males and 90+ age group in females. Incidence rates are higher for males than females aged 15-19 and over and this gap is widest at age 85-89, when the male:female incidence ratio of age-specific rates (to account for the different proportions of males to females in each age group) is around 21:10.[1-4]

Leukaemia (C91-C95), Average Number of New Cases per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2012-2014

For leukaemia, like most cancer types, incidence increases with age. This largely reflects cell DNA damage accumulating over time. Damage can result from biological processes or from exposure to risk factors. A drop or plateau in incidence in the oldest age groups often indicates reduced diagnostic activity perhaps due to general ill health.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2012-2014, ICD-10 C91-95

Last reviewed:

Leukaemia (all subtypes combined) incidence rates have increased by 43% in Great Britain since the late 1970s.[1-3] The increase is similar for males and females.

For males, European age-standardised Open a glossary item (AS) incidence rates increased by 37% between 1979-1981 and 2011-2013. The rise is similar for females, with rates having increased by 38% between 1979-1981 and 2011-2013.

Leukaemia (C91-C95), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, by Sex, Great Britain, 1979-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

Over the last decade in the UK (between 2002-2004 and 2011-2013), leukaemia (all subtypes combined) AS incidence rates have increased by 5% for males and females combined, though this includes an increase of 4% for males, and stable rates for females.[1-4]

Leukaemia (C91-C95), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, by Sex, UK, 1993-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

Leukaemia incidence trends probably reflect improvements in diagnostic techniques and data registration.[5]

Leukaemia (all subtypes combined) incidence rates have increased overall for all  of the broad age groups in Great Britain since the late 1970s.[1-3] The largest increases have been in people aged 60-69 and 70-79, with European AS incidence rates increasing by 55% and 51% respectively between 1979-1981 and 2011-2013. The smallest change has been in people aged 0-24, but even in this age group the rates have increased by 20% between 1979-1981 and 2011-2013.

Leukaemia (C91-C95), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, by Age, Great Britain, 1979-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, February 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, March 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/
  5. Northern and Yorkshire Cancer Registry and Information Service. Haematological malignancies in England. Cancers Diagnosed 2001-2008. London: NCIN; 2013.
Last reviewed:

Leukaemia incidence rates are projected to rise by 5% in the UK between 2014 and 2035, to 19 cases per 100,000 people by 2035.[1] This includes an increase for males and a drop for females.

For males, leukaemia European age-standardised (AS) Open a glossary item incidence rates in the UK are projected to rise by 6% between 2014 and 2035, to 26 cases per 100,000 by 2035.[1] For females, rates are projected to fall by 1% between 2014 and 2035, to 13 cases per 100,000 by 2035.[1]

Leukaemia (C91-C95), Observed and Projected Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, by Sex, UK, 1979-2035

 

It is projected that 13,758 cases of leukaemia (8,714 in males, 5,044 in females) will be diagnosed in the UK in 2035.

References

  1. Smittenaar CR, Petersen KA, Stewart K, Moitt N. Cancer Incidence and Mortality Projections in the UK Until 2035. Brit J Cancer 2016.

About this data

Data is for: UK, 1979-2014 (observed), 2015-2035 (projected), ICD-10 C91-C95

Projections are based on observed incidence and mortality rates and therefore implicitly include changes in cancer risk factors, diagnosis and treatment. It is not possible to assess the statistical significance of changes between 2014 (observed) and 2035 (projected) figures. Confidence intervals are not calculated for the projected figures. Projections are by their nature uncertain because unexpected events in future could change the trend. It is not sensible to calculate a boundary of uncertainty around these already uncertain point estimates. Changes are described as 'increase' or 'decrease' if there is any difference between the point estimates.

More on projections methodology

Last reviewed:

The lifetime risk of developing leukaemia (all subtypes combined) is 1 in 63 for men and 1 in 94 for women, in 2012 in the UK.[1]

The lifetime risk for leukaemia has been calculated on the assumption that the possibility of having more than one diagnosis of leukaemia over the course of a lifetime is very low (‘Current Probability’ method).[2]

References

  1. Lifetime risk estimates calculated by the Statistical Information Team at Cancer Research UK. Based on data provided by the Office of National Statistics, ISD Scotland, the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit and the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry, on request, December 2013 to July 2014.
  2. Esteve J, Benhamou E and Raymond L. Descriptive epidemiology. IARC Scientific Publications No.128, Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer, pp 67-68 1994.
Last reviewed:

Age-standardised  Open a glossary itemrates for White males with leukaemia range from 12.3 to 12.9 per 100,000. Rates for Black males are similar, ranging from 7.7 to 14.2 per 100,000 and the rates for Asian males are significantly lower, ranging from 6.3 to 10.6 per 100,000. For females there is a different pattern - the age-standardised rates for White females range from 7.3 to 7.7 per 100,000, and rates for Asian and Black females are similar ranging from 4.1 to 7.3 per 100,000 and 4.7 to 8.9 per 100,000.[1]

Ranges are given because of the analysis methodology used to account for missing and unknown data. For leukaemia, 30,818 cases were identified; 24% had no known ethnicity.

Last reviewed:

In the UK around 27,100 people were still alive at the end of 2006, up to ten years after being diagnosed with leukaemia (all subtypes combined).[1]

Leukaemia (C91-C95), One, Five and Ten Year Cancer Prevalence, UK, 31st December 2006

1 Year Prevalence 5 Year Prevalence 10 Year Prevalence
Male 2,668 10,053 15,738
Female 1,847 7,058 11,430
Persons 4,515 17,111 27,168

Worldwide, it is estimated that there were around 500,000 men and women still alive in 2008, up to five years after their diagnosis.[2]

References

  1. NCIN. One, Five and Ten Year Cancer Prevalence by Cancer Network, UK, 2006. London: NCIN; 2010
  2. Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, et al. GLOBOCAN 2008 v1.2, Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 10 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2010. Available from http://globocan.iarc.fr. Accessed May 2011.
Last reviewed:

Leukaemia is the 12th most common cancer in Europe, with around 82,300 new cases diagnosed in 2012 (2% of the total). In Europe (2012), the highest World age-standardised Open a glossary item incidence rates for leukaemia are in Ireland for men and Cyprus for women; the lowest rates are in Bosnia Herzegovina for both men and women. UK leukaemia incidence rates are estimated to be the 14th highest in males in Europe, and 19th lowest in females.[1] These data are broadly in line with Europe-specific data available elsewhere.[2]

Leukaemia is the 11th most common cancer worldwide, with around 352,000 new cases diagnosed in 2012 (2% of the total). Leukaemia incidence rates are highest in Australia/New Zealand and lowest in Western Africa, but this partly reflects varying data quality worldwide.[1]

References

  1. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed December 2013.
  2. Ferlay J, Steliarova-Foucher E, Lortet-Tieulent J, et al.Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in Europe: Estimates for 40 countries in 2012. European Journal of Cancer (2013) 49, 1374-1403.
Last reviewed:

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