54% of bowel cancer cases each year in the UK are linked to major lifestyle and other risk factors.
Bowel cancer risk is associated with a number of risk factors.[2,3]
Bowel Cancer Risk Factors
|Increases risk||Decreases risk|
|'Sufficient' or 'convincing' evidence||
|'Limited' or 'probable' evidence||
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) classifications.
a IARC classification does not specify sex, WCRF/AICR classifies evidence on alcoholic drinks as convincing for males and probable for females; b IARC classifies evidence on X radiation and gamma radiation as sufficient for colon and limited for rectum; c IARC classifies evidence on red meat as limited, WCRF/AICR classifies evidence on red meat as convincing; d WCRF/AICR classifies evidence on physical activity as stronger for colon than rectum.
- Parkin DM, Boyd L, Walker LC. The fraction of cancer attributable to lifestyle and environmental factors in the UK in 2010. Summary and conclusions. Br J Cancer 2011; 105 (S2):S77-S81.
- International Agency for Research on Cancer. List of Classifications by cancer sites with sufficient or limited evidence in humans, Volumes 1 to 116*. Accessed October 2016.
- Lauby-Secretan B, Scoccianti C, Loomis D, et al. Body Fatness and Cancer--Viewpoint of the IARC Working Group. N Engl J Med. 2016 Aug 25;375(8):794-8.
- World Cancer Research Fund / American Institute for Cancer Research. Continuous Update Project Findings & Reports. Accessed October 2016.