Researching and writing
Before writing, we carry out a comprehensive literature search. Our editorial policy has a section on researching the information. This outlines the sources we consult before writing any clinical section. It has a helpful checklist of sources.
We focus on UK or European medical information sources and guidelines. This is because practice can differ between countries. We also look at other general and site specific cancer websites.
Deciding which information to produce
We have robust processes to identify and prioritise subjects for new information. These are outlined in the Cancer Research UK health and patient information editorial policy.
Writing the information
Before starting to write new information, the writer discusses the content with a senior member of the team including:
- what should be included
- how to structure it. For example, whether it should be a page or a section to be added to one of the current pages.
Cancer type sections conform to a basic layout. The ordering of information within this layout varies according to the cancer type being covered. Sections are created using the content model. For examples of a section structure, compare the specific cancer sections on site.
There are templates for many of the pages included in cancer type sections. The templates often need to be adapted to make them appropriate for the cancer type. We can clone existing pages if the content is similar enough to the page that we need to produce.
The layout of a section is common to most cancer types. We have developed these areas based on user testing and user feedback.
Main navigation page
Each cancer type has a main navigation page. Each navigation page has boxes that contain links to the following information:
A page about the specific cancer type
This has pages about:
- seeing your GP
- seeing a specialist
- tests to diagnose and stage the cancer
- screening for cancer
We include screening even if there is no screening programme in the UK. We explain why there is no screening programme.
We have specific guidelines for writing survival pages.
This varies according to the treatments for that cancer type. It includes pages about:
- targeted cancer drugs
- follow up after treatment
This includes sub-types if appropriate.
Includes information about grading where appropriate.
Research and clinical trials
This covers all patient research, not just the work of Cancer Research UK. It doesn’t cover treatments in animal or laboratory research.
Living with cancer
Contains an overview page on coping that details the general and specific issues for that cancer type. It has links to more detailed information pages. For example:
- life after surgery or bone marrow transplant
- diet after treatment
- effects on sex life
This section contains a page with resources and organisations, general and specific to the cancer type. Include suppliers of equipment if relevant and link to other websites where necessary. All sites we link to must be reputable and produce reliable, quality information that is regularly updated. Links are approved on an individual basis in accordance with the health and patient information team editorial policy.
Risks and causes for that cancer type
We create content as a word document and versions are tracked in SharePoint.
We can use a template from the CMS template library if one is available and it is appropriate for the content we're producing. There are templates for different types of content. We might need to adapt one to make it relevant for the content we're writing about.
We can clone an existing page if the content is similar enough to the one we need to produce.
Each new patient information page requires the writer to produce:
- page titles and URLs
- meta description text
- the body text
- related links
We also work with our information designers to produce and revise diagrams and videos. And we can commission new photos where these are needed.
- Each page should be about one topic and must have a clear focus.
- We use the language that web users are using (see Google Trends).
- We break the information into self contained, useful chunks of information (entities).
- Each entity (subsection) has a clear and relevant heading.
- We make one point per paragraph.
- We aim to have a maximum of 4 sentences per paragraph.
- We aim to have a maximum of 4 paragraphs per heading.
- On each page and each subsection, we put the key point or fact first to address the user needs and then expand with more detail.
- We're specific to help personalise journeys for users. For example, we can say which other conditions may cause the same symptoms as a type of cancer but don’t describe or give other information about the conditions.
- We use images, diagrams, photos and videos where appropriate to break up the text.
Every page has its own title. These are H1 headings. Ideally, page titles should include the search term for which the website has been optimised. For example, Symptoms of oesophageal cancer.
- Clear, unique and specific to the page
- Under 55 characters (including spaces) where possible
- Front-loaded – the most relevant word first
- Optimised for search, including keywords
- In sentence case – only the first letter is capitalised, except if proper nouns are included (for example, Treatment for Barrett’s oesophagus)
Web pages have a hierarchy of headings. We use from H1 (the title) down to H3.
Search engines use headings, especially H1s, to categorise and find information and not just to break up the text. They expect headings to include clues to the page’s main topics. So headings should include the main keywords of the page.
The H1 heading indicates the most important topic of the page, and the other headings create subtopics.
Other headings should:
- front load the information
- be under 6 words where possible
- help break up the text and help users scan the page
We fill in metadata information for every page. This includes the meta description and URL.
The URL for each page begins: www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-cancer
Specific page URLs are constructed according to the location of the page within the site. The last section is the page title with hyphens between the words.
For example, the page Targeted drugs for breast cancer would have the URL: www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-cancer/breast-cancer/treatment/targeted-cancer-drugs
Within the metadata section of each page, there is a field to fill in the page title and the meta description. This is the information that appears in a search engine.
To create the metadata you should:
- keep titles under 55 characters
- create an enticing description that is no longer than 160 characters: it is cut off if it is any longer
For cancer type sections: [page title] | [cancer type] | Cancer Research UK or [page title with cancer type] | Cancer Research UK
For general cancer information: [page title] | Cancer information | Cancer Research UK
For coping pages: [page title] | Coping | Cancer Research UK
Keywords and tagging
Keywords for each page must be included in the content as fully as possible, especially at the top of the page. Check keywords with the About Cancer Assistant (Digital).
Use the keywords to inform the meta description.
All pages and entities must be tagged with the appropriate cancer type and subject of the content.
Each content page should have one topic and should have a clear focus. So there is no limit to how short or long the page should be, as long as the main question or topic of the page has been answered.
All content must be written in accordance with the style guide.
We use re-usable entities where possible. And we make sure that the content is appropriate and doesn’t duplicate information elsewhere on the page. This means that, when we create new content, we might need to create new re-usable entities.
Each re-usable entity should be about one subject or issue. Bullet lists need to be in list paragraph format.
Titles of re-usable entities
Put the specific subject of the entity first, followed by the general subject or type of cancer, or both.
- Feeling or being sick - chemotherapy side effect - mild
- Feeling or being sick - symptoms - upper gastrointestinal cancer
- Feeling or being sick - symptom - advanced cancer
- Planning radiotherapy - rectal cancer
- After treatment - radiotherapy - bowel cancer
- Before your test - endoscopy - upper gastrointestinal cancer
- Before radiotherapy - cancer in general
We use lists to help make the information easier to read.
Bulleted items – known as bullet points – may be short phrases or single sentences. Different types of bullet points are used in different situations.
Bulleted lists should be created as a list paragraph.
To break up a long sentence
We start with a lead in line including as much shared content as possible. We use a colon and don’t end bullets with ‘and’ or ‘or’. Each bullet is an alternate ending to the lead in sentence. We front load each bullet if possible. And we begin each bullet with a lower case letter and we don’t have a full stop at the end. For example:
For advanced oesophageal cancer your doctor might recommend chemotherapy to:
- shrink a cancer before surgery
- help to control symptoms
Giving a list of tips
Each bullet is a sentence so starts with a capital letter and ends with a full stop. For example:
Tips to help you sleep
- Go to bed and get up at the same time each day.
- Avoid caffeine (coffee, tea, chocolate and cola drinks) after early afternoon.
- Make sure the room that you sleep in is a comfortable and soothing place.
Each box contains a sentence with a capital letter and a full stop. Or we can have a lead in sentence above the box, in which case use lower case and no full stop. For an example, see drug page schedules.
We include links to help guide people to further information about a particular subject or to guide them to the next most relevant page.
- only include links to relevant content and resources that support the user
- use a pink Call To Action (CTA) link for the most important next step the user should take
- have a maximum of 6 related links on a page and link only to relevant content - where possible aim to have only one or two CTA links
- comply with accessibility criteria: for people using site reading software, links may display as a list at the end of a page. So link text must make sense in its own right and describe the content on the link destination
- avoid contextual hyperlinks (links within the content) and instead have a call to action (CTA) below a subsection or at the end of the page
- sometimes need to use contextual hyperlinks but avoid where possible: you can see an example on our A to Z list page - Your cancer type
When using contextual hyperlinks
Avoid using single word links as they are hard to tap on mobile.
Avoid linking out when you can provide a short explanation instead.
Don't repeat links.
Avoid linking to different resources using the same link text.
Keep links concise – limit to about 4 or 5 words.
Avoid using whole sentences as a link.
When creating content as a word document, create any links as an embedded link in the text and include the node number of pages in the CMS afterwards in square brackets: for example, Find out more about chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer [LINK node/11192]
We use diagrams, photos, animations and video content where appropriate to clarify the meaning and make information more visually appealing. We don’t overuse images because they can clutter the information.
These design features can help to explain difficult concepts and break up the text. We think creatively about where to include diagrams or illustrations.
All of our visual content goes through the same rigorous process as any of our other information.
The writer requesting the information produces a sketch. These are used by the information designer or a specialist medical illustrator to create the diagram.
Labelling should be in plain English.
Videos and animations
These should be focussed and short - usually under 2 minutes. We think about splitting it into 2 if it is likely to be longer. The Information designer creates a script to go with it.
We tell users how long the video is: for example 2 minutes.
All of our visual content is checked throughout the development process (from storyboard to final product) by a specialist in the relevant field and by a lay reviewer.
Cancer Research UK has guidelines on creating content for video and animation. This includes ensuring we have signed consent from anyone taking part in the video.
We collect information including:
- the number of views
- how long people watch the video for (audience retention)
- comments from users
- likes and shares
This information informs the development of future videos and animations.
The help banner is at the bottom of every page. It has links to the nurse helpline, trials database and our online forum CancerChat.
We use stories from people with cancer and their relatives where possible. These are popular with site users. They must be checked for accuracy and signed off by subject matter experts in the patient information web team / health team as appropriate.
Block quotes on content pages should be short, focused and relevant to the page content.
The story and block quote should be in first person and include a picture or image, and a short description of person saying the quote. For example, a parent or breast cancer survivor or xxxx [name] with prostate cancer.
The story should use words from the source but break into sub sections if needed.