Cancer of unknown primary incidence statistics

Cases

New cases of cancer of unknown primary, 2015, UK

 

Proportion of all cases

Percentage cancer of unknown primary is of total cancer cases, 2015, UK

 

Age

Peak rate of cancer of unknown primary cases, 2013-2015, UK

 

Trend over time

Change in cancer of unknown primary incidence rates since the early 1990s, UK

Cancer of Unknown Primary is the 15th most common cancer in the UK, accounting for 2% of all new cancer cases (2015).[1-4]

In males in the UK, cancer of unknown primary is the 14th most common cancer (2% of all new male cancer cases). In females in the UK it is the 11th most common cancer (3% of all new female cancer cases).

48% of cancer of unknown primary cases in the UK are in males, and 52% are in females.

Cancer of unknown primary incidence rates (European age-standardised (AS) rates Open a glossary item ) for persons are significantly higher than the UK average in Scotland and Wales, significantly lower than the UK average in Northern Ireland, and similar to the UK average in England.

Cancer Of Unknown Primary (C77-C80), Number of New Cases, Crude and European Age-Standardised (AS) Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2015

  England Scotland Wales Northern Ireland UK
Male Cases 3,417 421 243 79 4,160
Crude Rate 12.6 16.1 15.9 8.7 13.0
AS Rate 15.5 20.0 17.8 12.6 15.9
AS Rate - 95% LCI 15.0 18.1 15.5 9.8 15.4
AS Rate - 95% UCI 16.1 21.9 20.0 15.4 16.4
Female Cases 3,653 449 289 84 4,475
Crude Rate 13.2 16.3 18.4 8.9 13.5
AS Rate 12.9 15.7 16.6 9.7 13.3
AS Rate - 95% LCI 12.5 14.2 14.7 7.6 12.9
AS Rate - 95% UCI 13.4 17.1 18.5 11.8 13.7
Persons Cases 7,070 870 532 163 8,635
Crude Rate 12.9 16.2 17.2 8.8 13.3
AS Rate 14.1 17.5 17.1 10.8 14.5
AS Rate - 95% LCI 13.8 16.3 15.6 9.1 14.2
AS Rate - 95% UCI 14.4 18.6 18.5 12.5 14.8

95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and upper confidence limits Open a glossary item  around the AS Rate Open a glossary item 
 

For cancer of unknown primary, there are few established risk factors therefore differences between countries largely reflect differences in diagnosis and data recording.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2017. Similar data can be found here: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, August 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, October 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, July 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2015, ICD-10 C77-C80.

Last reviewed:

Cancer of unknown primary incidence is strongly related to age, with the highest incidence rates being in older people. In the UK in 2013-2015, on average each year almost 6 in 10 (56%) of new cases were in people aged 75 and over.[1-4

Age-specific incidence rates rise steadily from around age 40-44 and more steeply from around age 65-69. The highest rates are in the 90+ age group for males and females.

Incidence rates are significantly higher in males than females in a number of (mainly older) age groups. The gap is widest at age 50 to 54, when the age-specific incidence rate is 1.4 times higher in males than females.

Cancer Of Unknown Primary (C77-C80), Average Number of New Cases per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2013-2015

95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and upper confidence limits Open a glossary item  around the AS Rate Open a glossary item
 

For cancer of unknown primary, like most cancer types, incidence increases with age. This largely reflects cell DNA damage accumulating over time. Damage can result from biological processes or from exposure to risk factors. A drop or plateau in incidence in the oldest age groups often indicates reduced diagnostic activity perhaps due to general ill health.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2017. Similar data can be found here: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, August 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, October 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, July 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2013-2015, ICD-10 C77-C80.

Last reviewed:

Cancer of Unknown Primary European age-standardised (AS) Open a glossary item incidence rates for males and females combined decreased by 52% in the UK between 1993-1995 and 2013-2015.[1-4] The decrease was larger in males than in females.

For males, cancer of unknown primary AS incidence rates in the UK decreased by 56% between 1993-1995 and 2013-2015. For females, cancer of unknown primary AS incidence rates in the UK decreased by 50% between 1993-1995 and 2013-2015.

Over the last decade in the UK (between 2003-2005 and 2013-2015), cancer of unknown primary AS incidence rates for males and females combined decreased by 38%. In males AS incidence rates decreased by 39%, and in females rates decreased by 37%.

Cancer of Unknown Primary (C77-C80), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, UK, 1993-2015

Cancer of Unknown Primary incidence rates have decreased overall in all broad adult age groups in males and females combined in the UK since the early 1990s.[1-4] Rates in 25-49s have decreased by 43%, in 50-59s have decreased by 56%, in 60-69s have decreased by 60%, in 70-79s have decreased by 58%, and in 80+s have decreased by 41%.

Cancer of Unknown Primary (C77-C80), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, By Age, UK, 1993-2015

CUP incidence trends reflect improvements in data collection and diagnostic capabilities which mean identification of primary site is possible for more cancer cases, hence fewer cases are registered as CUP. CUP data were not consistently collected until the 1990s, meaning trends starting before this time are not reliable.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2017. Similar data can be found here: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, August 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, October 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, July 2017. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 1993-2015, ICD-10 C77-C80.

Last reviewed:

The largest proportion of cancer of unknown primary cases occur in the respiratory and digestive organs, with much a smaller proportion in the lymph nodes Open a glossary item (2010-2012).[1-4]

The proportion of cases in each part of the body is similar between males and females.[1-4]

A large proportion of cases did not have the specific site of unknown primary recorded in cancer registry data, or overlapped more than one part.[1-4]

Cases and percentages may not sum due to rounding

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, June 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/CancerInformation/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2010-2012, ICD-10 C77-C80.

Last reviewed:

The lifetime risk of developing cancer of unknown primary is 1 in 66 for men and 1 in 62 for women, in 2012 in the UK.[1]

The lifetime risk for CUP has been calculated on the assumption that the possibility of having more than one diagnosis of CUP over the course of a lifetime is very low (‘Current Probability’ method).[2]

References

  1. Lifetime risk estimates calculated by the Statistical Information Team at Cancer Research UK. Based on data provided by the Office of National Statistics, ISD Scotland, the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit and the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry, on request, December 2013 to July 2014.
  2. Esteve J, Benhamou E and Raymond L. Descriptive epidemiology. IARC Scientific Publications No.128, Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer, pp 67-68 1994.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2012, ICD-10 C77-C80.

Lifetime risk estimates were calculated using incidence, mortality, population and all-cause mortality data for 2012.

Last reviewed:

There is evidence for an association between cancer of unkown primary (CUP) incidence and deprivation for both males and females in England.[1]  England-wide data for 2006-2010 show European age-standardised Open a glossary item incidence rates are 67% higher for males living in the most deprived areas compared with the least deprived, and 60% higher for females.[1]

Cancer of Unknown Primary (C77-C80), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates by Deprivation Quintile, England, 2006-2010

The estimated deprivation gradient in CUP incidence between people living in the most and least deprived areas in England has narrowed for males in the period 1996-2010, but has not changed for females.[1] It has been estimated that there would have been around 1,600 fewer cancer cases each year in England during 2006-2010 if all people experienced the same incidence rates as the least deprived.[1]

References

  1. Cancer Research UK and National Cancer Intelligence Network. Cancer by deprivation in England: Incidence, 1996-2010, Mortality, 1997-2011. London: NCIN; 2014.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2006-2010, ICD-10 C77-C80

Deprivation gradient statistics were calculated using incidence data for 2006-2010. The deprivation quintiles were calculated using the Income domain scores from the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) from the following years: 2004, 2007 and 2010. Full details on the data and methodology can be found in the Cancer by Deprivation in England NCIN report.

Last reviewed:

An estimated 12,500 people who had been diagnosed with cancer of unknown primary (CUP) between 1991 and 2010 were alive in the UK at the end of 2010.[1]

References

  1. Macmillan Cancer Support and National Cancer Registration and Analysis Service. Cancer Prevalence UK Data Tables. London: NCRAS; 2015.

About this data

Data is for: Great Britain (1991-2010) and Northern Ireland (1993-2010), ICD-10 C77, C78, C79, C80

Last reviewed:

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