Anal cancer incidence statistics

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Cases

New cases of anal cancer each year, 2016-2018 average, UK.

 

Proportion of all cases

Percentage anal cancer is of total cancer cases, 2016-2018, UK

 

Age

Peak rate of anal cancer cases, 2016-2018, UK

 

Trend over time

Change in anal cancer incidence rates since the early 1990s, UK

 

Anal cancer is not among the 20 most common cancers in the UK, accounting for less than 1% of all new cancer cases (2016-2018).[1-4]

In females in the UK, anal cancer is not among the 20 most common cancers (less than 1% of all new female cancer cases). In males in the UK, it is not among the 20 most common cancers (less than 1% of all new male cancer cases).

66% of anal cancer cases in the UK are in females, and 34% are in males.

Anal cancer incidence rates (European age-standardised (AS) rate Open a glossary item) for persons are similar to the UK average in all the UK constituent countries.

Anal cancer is one of the few non-sex-specific cancer types which is more common in women than men, this is probably due to sex differences in risk factor prevalence.

Anal Cancer (C21), Average Number of New Cases Per Year, Crude and European Age-Standardised (AS) Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2016-2018

  England Scotland Wales Northern Ireland UK
Female Cases 837 90 55 24 1,007
Crude Rate 3.0 3.2 3.5 2.6 3.0
AS Rate 3.1 3.1 3.3 2.8 3.1
AS Rate - 95% LCL 2.9 2.8 2.8 2.1 3.0
AS Rate - 95% UCL 3.2 3.5 3.8 3.4 3.2
Male Cases 427 46 28 10 511
Crude Rate 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.1 1.6
AS Rate 1.7 1.9 1.9 1.3 1.7
AS Rate - 95% LCL 1.6 1.5 1.5 0.8 1.7
AS Rate - 95% UCL 1.8 2.2 2.3 1.8 1.8
Persons Cases 1,265 136 83 35 1,519
Crude Rate 2.3 2.5 2.7 1.9 2.3
AS Rate 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.1 2.4
AS Rate - 95% LCL 2.4 2.3 2.3 1.7 2.4
AS Rate - 95% UCL 2.5 2.8 2.9 2.5 2.5

95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and upper confidence limits around the AS Rate Open a glossary item
 

References

  1. Data were provided by the National Cancer Registration and Analysis Service (part of Public Health England), on request through the Office for Data Release, July 2021. Similar data can be found here: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2020. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications.
  3. Data were published by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales https://phw.nhs.wales/services-and-teams/welsh-cancer-intelligence-and-surveillance-unit-wcisu/cancer-incidence-in-wales-2002-2018/, March 2021.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2020. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2016-2018, ICD-10 C21.

Last reviewed:

Anal cancer incidence is strongly related to age, with the highest incidence rates being in older people. In the UK in 2016-2018, on average each year a quarter of new cases (25%) were in people aged 75 and over.[1-4]

Age-specific incidence rates rise from around age 35-39, more sharply for females and more steadily for males.The highest rates are in in the 75 to 79 age group for females and the 80 to 84 age group for males.

Incidence rates are significantly higher in females than males in a number of (mainly older) age groups.The gap is widest at age 55 to 59, when the age-specific incidence rate is 2.1 times higher in females than males.

Anal cancer (C21), Average Number of New Cases per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2016-2018

For anal cancer, like most cancer types, incidence increases with age. This largely reflects cell DNA damage accumulating over time. Damage can result from biological processes or from exposure to risk factors. A drop or plateau in incidence in the oldest age groups often indicates reduced diagnostic activity perhaps due to general ill health.

References

  1. Data were provided by the National Cancer Registration and Analysis Service (part of Public Health England), on request through the Office for Data Release, July 2021. Similar data can be found here: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2020. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications.
  3. Data were published by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales https://phw.nhs.wales/services-and-teams/welsh-cancer-intelligence-and-surveillance-unit-wcisu/cancer-incidence-in-wales-2002-2018/, March 2021.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2020. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2016-2018, ICD-10 C21.

Last reviewed:

Anal cancer European age-standardised (AS) Open a glossary item incidence rates for females and males combined increased by 76% in the UK between 1993-1995 and 2016-2018.[1-4] The increase was larger in females than in males.

For females, anal cancer AS incidence rates in the UK increased by 117% between 1993-1995 and 2016-2018. For males, anal cancer AS incidence rates in the UK increased by 26% between 1993-1995 and 2016-2018.

Over the last decade in the UK (between 2006-2008 and 2016-2018), anal cancer AS incidence rates for females and males combined increased by 37%. In females AS incidence rates increased by 53%, and in males rates increased by 13%.

Anal Cancer (C21), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, UK, 1993 to 2018

Anal cancer incidence rates have increased overall in most broad age groups in females in the UK since the early 1990s, but have remained stable in some.[1-4] Rates in 0-24s have remained stable, in 25-49s have increased by 138%, in 50-59s have increased by 249%, in 60-69s have increased by 170%, in 70-79s have increased by 60% and in 80+s have increased by 40%.

Anal Cancer (C21), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates per 100,000 Female Population, By Age, UK, 1993-2018

Anal cancer incidence rates have varied between age groups in males in the UK since the early 1990s.[1-4] Rates in 0-24s have remained stable, in 25-49s have increased by 68%, in 50-59s have increased by 92%, in 60-69s have increased by 45%, in 70-79s have remained stable and in 80+s have remained stable.

Anal Cancer (C21), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates per 100,000 Male Population, By Age, UK, 1993-2018

For anal cancer, like most cancer types, incidence trends largely reflect changing prevalence of risk factors and improvements in diagnosis and data recording. Recent incidence trends are influenced by risk factor prevalence in years past, and trends by age group reflect risk factor exposure in birth cohorts.

References

  1. Data were provided by the National Cancer Registration and Analysis Service (part of Public Health England), on request through the Office for Data Release, July 2021. Similar data can be found here: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2020. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications.
  3. Data were published by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales https://phw.nhs.wales/services-and-teams/welsh-cancer-intelligence-and-surveillance-unit-wcisu/cancer-incidence-in-wales-2002-2018/, March 2021.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2020. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 1993-2018, ICD-10 C21.

Last reviewed:

Projections which take into account the expected impact of HPV vaccination indicate that anal cancer incidence rates will fall in future decades.[1] Projections which reflect past trends in cancer incidence, but do not model the possible impact of HPV vaccination, suggest that anal cancer incidence will rise in future decades; [2] these may act as a benchmark for evaluating the impact of HPV vaccination.

References

  1. Johnson HC, Lafferty EI, Eggo RM, Louie K, Soldan K, Waller J, Edmunds WJ. Effect of HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening in England by ethnicity: a modelling study. Lancet Public Health 2018;3(1):e44-e51.
  2. Smittenaar CR, Petersen KA, Stewart K, Moitt N. Cancer Incidence and Mortality Projections in the UK Until 2035. Brit J Cancer 2016.

About this data

Data is for: UK, 1979-2014 (observed), 2015-2035 (projected), ICD-10 C21

Projections are based on observed incidence and mortality rates and therefore implicitly include changes in cancer risk factors, diagnosis and treatment. It is not possible to assess the statistical significance of changes between 2014 (observed) and 2035 (projected) figures. Confidence intervals are not calculated for the projected figures. Projections are by their nature uncertain because unexpected events in future could change the trend. It is not sensible to calculate a boundary of uncertainty around these already uncertain point estimates. Changes are described as "increase" or "decrease" if there is any difference between the point estimates.

More on projections methodology

Last reviewed:

Anal cancer incidence rates (European age-standardised (AS) rates Open a glossary item) in England in females are 60% higher in the most deprived quintile compared with the least, and in males are 89% higher in the most deprived quintile compared with the least (2013-2017).[1]

It is estimated that there are around 260 more cases of anal cancer each year in England than there would be if every deprivation quintile had the same age-specific crude incidence rates as the least deprived quintile. Around 160 of these cases are in females, and around 100 in males.

Anal Cancer (C21), Estimated Average Number of Excess Cases per Year and European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, by Deprivation Quintile, England, 2013-2017

References

  1. Calculated by the Cancer Intelligence Team at Cancer Research UK, April 2020. Based on method reported in National Cancer Intelligence Network Cancer by Deprivation in England Incidence, 1996-2010 Mortality, 1997-2011 . Using cancer incidence data 2013-2017 (Public Health England) and population data 2013-2017 (Office for National Statistics) by Indices of Multiple Deprivation 2015 income domain quintile, cancer type, sex, and five-year age band.

About this data

Data is for England, 2013-2017, ICD-10 C21.

Last reviewed:

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