Anal cancer incidence statistics

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Cases

New cases of anal cancer, 2015-2017, UK.

 

Proportion of all cases

Percentage anal cancer is of total cancer cases, 2015-2017, UK

 

Age

Peak rate of anal cancer cases, 2015-2017, UK

 

Trend over time

Change in anal cancer incidence rates since the early 1990s, UK

 

Anal cancer is not among the 20 most common cancers in the UK, accounting for less than 1% of all new cancer cases (2017).[1-4]

In females in the UK, anal cancer is not among the 20 most common cancers (less than 1% of all new female cancer cases). In males in the UK, it is not among the 20 most common cancers (less than 1% of all new male cancer cases).

66% of anal cancer cases in the UK are in females, and 34% are in males.

Anal cancer incidence rates (European age-standardised (AS) rates Open a glossary item) for persons are similar to the UK average in all the UK constituent countries.

Anal Cancer (C21), Number of New Cases, Crude and European Age-Standardised (AS) Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2017

  England Scotland Wales Northern Ireland UK
Female Cases 808 89 57 30 984
Crude Rate 2.9 3.2 3.6 3.2 2.9
AS Rate 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.4 3.0
AS Rate - 95% LCL 2.8 2.4 2.5 2.2 2.8
AS Rate - 95% UCL 3.2 3.7 4.2 4.6 3.2
Male Cases 418 52 27 13 510
Crude Rate 1.5 2.0 1.8 1.4 1.6
AS Rate 1.7 2.1 1.8 1.6 1.7
AS Rate - 95% LCL 1.5 1.5 1.1 0.7 1.6
AS Rate - 95% UCL 1.9 2.6 2.4 2.5 1.9
Persons Cases 1,226 141 84 43 1,494
Crude Rate 2.2 2.6 2.7 2.3 2.3
AS Rate 2.4 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.4
AS Rate - 95% LCL 2.2 2.2 2.1 1.8 2.3
AS Rate - 95% UCL 2.5 3.0 3.2 3.3 2.5

95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and upper confidence limits Open a glossary item around the AS Rate Open a glossary item
Anal cancer is one of the few non-sex-specific cancer types which is more common in women than men, this is probably due to sex differences in risk factor prevalence.

References

  1. Data were provided by the National Cancer Registration and Analysis Service (part of Public Health England), on request through the Office for Data Release, November 2019. Similar data can be found here: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2019. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, December 2019. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2019. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2017, ICD-10 C21.

Last reviewed:

Anal cancer incidence is strongly related to age, with the highest incidence rates being in older people. In the UK in 2015-2017, on average each year a quarter of new cases (25%) were in people aged 75 and over.[1-4]

Age-specific incidence rates rise sharply from around age 35-39, slightly more rapidly for females than males.The highest rates are in in the 90+ age group for females and males.

Incidence rates are significantly higher in females than males in a number of (mainly older) age groups.The gap is widest at age 35 to 39, when the age-specific incidence rate is 2.3 times higher in females than males.

Anal cancer (C21), Average Number of New Cases per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2015-2017

For anal cancer, like most cancer types, incidence increases with age. This largely reflects cell DNA damage accumulating over time. Damage can result from biological processes or from exposure to risk factors. A drop or plateau in incidence in the oldest age groups often indicates reduced diagnostic activity perhaps due to general ill health.

References

  1. Data were provided by the National Cancer Registration and Analysis Service (part of Public Health England), on request through the Office for Data Release, November 2019. Similar data can be found here: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2019. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, December 2019. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2019. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2015-2017, C21.

Last reviewed:

Anal cancer European age-standardised (AS) Open a glossary item incidence rates for females and males combined increased by 76% in the UK between 1993-1995 and 2015-2017.[1-4] The increase was larger in females than in males.

For females, anal cancer AS incidence rates in the UK increased by 118% between 1993-1995 and 2015-2017. For males, anal cancer AS incidence rates in the UK increased by 26% between 1993-1995 and 2015-2017.

Over the last decade in the UK (between 2005-2007 and 2015-2017), anal cancer AS incidence rates for females and males combined increased by 41%.[1-4] In females AS incidence rates increased by 59%, and in males rates increased by 15%.

Anal Cancer (ICD-10 C21), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, UK, 1993-2017

Anal cancer incidence rates have increased overall in most broad age groups in females in the UK since the early 1990s, but have remained stable in some.[1-4] Rates in 0-24s have remained stable, in 25-49s have increased by 160%, in 50-59s have increased by 250%, in 60-69s have increased by 171%, in 70-79s have increased by 54%, and in 80+s have increased by 41%.

Anal Cancer (ICD-10 C21), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, By Age, Females, UK, 1993-2017

Anal cancer incidence rates have varied between age groups in males in the UK since the early 1990s.[1-4] Rates in 0-24s have remained stable, in 25-49s have increased by 83%, in 50-59s have increased by 84%, in 60-69s have increased by 41%, in 70-79s have remained stable, and in 80+s have remained stable.

Anal Cancer (ICD-10 C21), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, By Age, Males, UK, 1993-2017

For anal cancer, like most cancer types, incidence trends largely reflect changing prevalence of risk factors and improvements in diagnosis and data recording. Recent incidence trends are influenced by risk factor prevalence in years past, and trends by age group reflect risk factor exposure in birth cohorts.

References

  1. Data were provided by the National Cancer Registration and Analysis Service (part of Public Health England), on request through the Office for Data Release, November 2019. Similar data can be found here: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2019. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, December 2019. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2019. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 1993-2017, ICD-10 C21.

Last reviewed:

Projections which take into account the expected impact of HPV vaccination indicate that anal cancer incidence rates will fall in future decades.[1] Projections which reflect past trends in cancer incidence, but do not model the possible impact of HPV vaccination, suggest that anal cancer incidence will rise in future decades; [2] these may act as a benchmark for evaluating the impact of HPV vaccination.

References

  1. Johnson HC, Lafferty EI, Eggo RM, Louie K, Soldan K, Waller J, Edmunds WJ. Effect of HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening in England by ethnicity: a modelling study. Lancet Public Health 2018;3(1):e44-e51.
  2. Smittenaar CR, Petersen KA, Stewart K, Moitt N. Cancer Incidence and Mortality Projections in the UK Until 2035. Brit J Cancer 2016.

About this data

Data is for: UK, 1979-2014 (observed), 2015-2035 (projected), ICD-10 C21

Projections are based on observed incidence and mortality rates and therefore implicitly include changes in cancer risk factors, diagnosis and treatment. It is not possible to assess the statistical significance of changes between 2014 (observed) and 2035 (projected) figures. Confidence intervals are not calculated for the projected figures. Projections are by their nature uncertain because unexpected events in future could change the trend. It is not sensible to calculate a boundary of uncertainty around these already uncertain point estimates. Changes are described as "increase" or "decrease" if there is any difference between the point estimates.

More on projections methodology

Last reviewed:

There is evidence for an association between anal cancer incidence and deprivation for both males and females in England.[1] England-wide data for 2006-2010 show European age-standardised Open a glossary item incidence rates incidence rates are 82% higher for males living in the most deprived areas compared with the least deprived, and 53% higher for females.[1]

Anal Cancer (C21), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates by Deprivation Quintile, England, 2006-2010

The estimated deprivation gradient in anal cancer incidence between people living in the most and least deprived areas in England has not changed in the period 1996-2010.[1] It has been estimated that there would have been around 150 fewer cancer cases each year in England during 2006-2010 if all people experienced the same incidence rates as the least deprived.[1

References

  1. Cancer Research UK and National Cancer Intelligence Network. Cancer by deprivation in England: Incidence, 1996-2010, Mortality, 1997-2011. London: NCIN; 2014.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2006-2010, ICD-10 C21

Deprivation gradient statistics were calculated using incidence data for 2006-2010. The deprivation quintiles were calculated using the Income domain scores from the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) from the following years: 2004, 2007 and 2010. Full details on the data and methodology can be found in the Cancer by Deprivation in England NCIN  report.

Last reviewed:

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