Stomach cancer incidence statistics

Cases

New cases of stomach cancer, 2014, UK

 

Proportion of all cases

Percentage stomach cancer is of total cancer cases, 2014, UK

 

Age

Peak rate of stomach cancer cases, 2012-2014, UK

Trend over time

Change in stomach cancer incidence rates since the early 1990s, UK

Stomach cancer is the 16th most common cancer in the UK (2014), accounting for 2% of all new cases. In males it is the 13th most common cancer (3% of the male total), while it is the 15th in females (1% of all new cases).[1-4]

In 2013, there were 6,682 new cases of stomach cancer in the UK: 4,353 (65%) in males and 2,329 (35%) in females, giving a male:female ratio of around 19:10.[1-4] The crude incidence rate shows that there are 14 new stomach cancer cases for every 100,000 males in the UK, and 7 for every 100,000 females.

The European age-standardised incidence rate (AS) is significantly lower for males in England compared with Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. For females, rates are significantly lower in England compared with Scotland and Northern Ireland. Female rates are also lower in Wales than Northern Ireland.[1-4] Rates do not differ significantly between the other constituent countries of the UK for either sex.

Stomach Cancer (C16), Number of New Cases, Crude and European Age-Standardised (AS) Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2014

England Wales Scotland Northern Ireland UK
Male Cases 3,508 306 407 132 4,353
Crude Rate 13.1 20.1 15.7 14.6 13.7
AS Rate 16.0 21.9 18.7 20.7 16.6
AS Rate - 95% LCL 15.4 19.5 16.9 17.2 16.1
AS Rate - 95% UCL 16.5 24.4 20.5 24.2 17.1
Female Cases 1,834 128 272 95 2,329
Crude Rate 6.7 8.1 9.9 10.1 7.1
AS Rate 6.7 7.5 9.7 11.2 7.1
AS Rate - 95% LCL 6.4 6.2 8.6 9.0 6.8
AS Rate - 95% UCL 7.0 8.8 10.9 13.5 7.4
Persons Cases 5,342 434 679 227 6,682
Crude Rate 9.8 14.0 12.7 12.3 10.3
AS Rate 10.9 13.9 13.6 15.2 11.4
AS Rate - 95% LCL 10.6 12.6 12.5 13.2 11.1
AS Rate - 95% UCL 11.1 15.3 14.6 17.2 11.6

95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and upper confidence limits around the AS rate

For stomach cancer, like most cancer types, differences between countries largely reflect risk factor prevalence in years past.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for: UK, 2014, ICD10 C16

Last reviewed:

Stomach cancer incidence is strongly related to age, with the highest incidence rates being in older males and females. In the UK in 2012-2014, on average each year around half (51%) of cases were diagnosed in people aged 75 and over.[1-4]

Age-specific incidence rates rise sharply from around age 60-64, peak in the 85-89 age group, and subsequently drop in those aged 90+. Incidence rates are higher for males than for females in those aged 40-44 and over (in the younger age groups the sex difference is not significant) and this gap is widest at the ages of 65 to 69, when the male:female incidence ratio of age-specific rates (to account for the different proportions of males to females in each age group) is around 28:10.[1-4]

Stomach Cancer (C16), Average Number of New Cases per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates, UK, 2012-2014

For stomach cancer, like most cancer types, incidence increases with age. This largely reflects cell DNA damage accumulating over time. Damage can result from biological processes or from exposure to risk factors. A drop or plateau in incidence in the oldest age groups often indicates reduced diagnostic activity perhaps due to general ill health.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: hhtp://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2012-2014, ICD-10 C16

Last reviewed:

Stomach cancer incidence rates have decreased by 48% in the UK since the early 1990s.[1-4] This includes a similar decrease for females and males. Stomach cancer incidence rates decreased by 25% (persons) in Great Britain between 1979-1981 and 1991-1993.[1-3]

For males, European age-standardised (AS) incidence rates decreased by 50% between 1993-1995 and 2012-2014. The decline is similar for females, with rates decreasing by 48% in this period.

Over the last decade in the UK (between 2003-2005 and 2012-2014), stomach cancer AS incidence rates have decreased by 27% for males and females combined, with similar decreased for males (28%) and females (27%).[1-4]

Stomach Cancer (C16), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, UK, 1993-2014

Stomach cancer incidence rates have decreased overall for all of the broad age groups in the UK since the early 1990s.[1-3] The largest decrease has been in people aged 60-69, with European AS incidence rates decreasing by 58% between 1993-1995 and 2012-2014.

Stomach Cancer (C16), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, Persons, by Age, UK, 1993-2014​

For stomach cancer, like most cancer types, incidence trends largely reflect changing prevalence of risk factors and improvements in diagnosis and data recording. Recent incidence trends are influenced by risk factor prevalence in years past, and trends by age group reflect risk factor exposure in birth cohorts.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/

About this data

Data is for UK, 1993-2014, ICD-10 C17

Last reviewed:

Overall stage at diagnosis

A moderate proportion (62-73%) of stomach cancer cases in England, Scotland and Northern Ireland have stage at diagnosis recorded.[1-3]

Stomach cancer patients with a known stage are most commonly diagnosed at stage IV (46-57%). More patients with a known stage are diagnosed at a late stage (69-75% are diagnosed at stage III or IV), than an early stage (25-31% are diagnosed at stage I or II).[1-3]

The stage distribution for each cancer type will reflect many factors including how the cancer type develops, the way symptoms appear, public awareness of symptoms, how quickly a person goes to see their doctor and how quickly the cancer is recognised and diagnosed by a doctor. It might also relate to whether a national screening programme that can detect early stage disease exists for that cancer type, along with the extent of uptake of that programme.

A cancer type associated with a large proportion of early stage diagnoses could be one that is more likely to be symptomatic at an earlier stage of development, with recognisable symptoms rather than more generic ones.

Stomach Cancer (C16), Proportion of Cases Diagnosed at Each Stage, All Ages, England 2014, Scotland 2014 and Northern Ireland 2010-2014

Data should not be compared between countries due to possible differences in recording of stage at diagnosis.

References

  1. National Cancer Registration and Analysis Service. Stage Breakdown by CCG 2014. London: NCRAS; 2016.
  2. ISD Scotland, Detect Cancer Early Staging Data. Scotland: ISD; 2016.
  3. Northern Ireland Cancer Registry, Queens University Belfast, Incidence by stage 2010-2014. Belfast: NICR; 2016.

About this data

Data is for: England 2014, Scotland 2014, Northern Ireland 2010-2014, ICD-10 C16

Data is not comparable between countries due to differences in time periods and possible differences in how countries record stage at diagnosis.

Last reviewed:

The largest proportion of stomach cancer cases occur in the cardia, with much smaller proportions in the pyloric antrum and body of the stomach (2010-2012).[1-4]

The proportion of cases in the cardia is higher in males (34.0%) than females (19.7%) and there are no marked sex differences in other parts of the stomach.[1-4]

A large proportion of cases did not have the specific part of the stomach recorded in cancer registry data, or overlapped more than one part.[1-4]

Cases and percentages may not sum due to rounding

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, June 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/CancerInformation/.
Last reviewed:

Most stomach cancers (around 95%) are adenocarcinomas which may be further classified into 'intestinal' and 'diffuse' type.

'Intestinal' adenocarcinomas are associated with a history of atrophic gastritis, have better survival and are associated with older patients, whereas the 'diffuse' adenocarcinomas are more common, with poorer survival and occur more frequently in women and people with blood group 'A'.[1]

Other stomach malignant histologies include lymphomas and leiomyosarcomas.

References

  1. Souhami R, Tobias J. Cancer and its management. Fifth Edition. Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd. 2005.
Last reviewed:

Stomach cancer incidence rates are projected to fall by 17% in the UK between 2014 and 2035, to 11 cases per 100,000 people by 2035.[1] This includes a larger decrease for males than for females.

For males, stomach cancer European age-standardised (AS) incidence rates in the UK are projected to fall by 23% between 2014 and 2035, to 15 cases per 100,000 by 2035.[1] For females, rates are projected to fall by 9% between 2014 and 2035, to 8 cases per 100,000 by 2035.[1]

Stomach cancer (C16), Observed and Projected Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, by Sex, UK, 1979-2035

It is projected that 8,282 cases of stomach cancer (5,220 in males, 3,062 in females) will be diagnosed in the UK in 2035.

References

  1. Smittenaar CR, Petersen KA, Stewart K, Moitt N. Cancer Incidence and Mortality Projections in the UK Until 2035. Brit J Cancer 2016.

About this data

Data is for: UK, 1979-2014 (observed), 2015-2035 (projected), ICD-10 C16

Projections are based on observed incidence and mortality rates and therefore implicitly include changes in cancer risk factors, diagnosis and treatment. It is not possible to assess the statistical significance of changes between 2014 (observed) and 2035 (projected) figures. Confidence intervals are not calculated for the projected figures. Projections are by their nature uncertain because unexpected events in future could change the trend. It is not sensible to calculate a boundary of uncertainty around these already uncertain point estimates. Changes are described as 'increase' or 'decrease' if there is any difference between the point estimates.

More on projections methodology

Last reviewed:

The lifetime risk of developing stomach cancer is 1 in 67 for men and around 1 in 135 for women, in 2012 in the UK.[1]

The lifetime risk for stomach cancer has been calculated to account for the possibility that someone can have more than one diagnosis of stomach cancer over the course of their lifetime (‘Adjusted for Multiple Primaries’ (AMP) method).[2]

References

  1. Lifetime risk estimates calculated by the Statistical Information Team at Cancer Research UK. Based on data provided by the Office of National Statistics, ISD Scotland, the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit and the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry, on request, December 2013 to July 2014.
  2. Sasieni PD, Shelton J, Ormiston-Smith N, et al. What is the lifetime risk of developing cancer?: The effect of adjusting for multiple primaries. Br J Cancer, 2011. 105(3): p. 460-5.
Last reviewed:

There is evidence for an association between stomach cancer incidence and deprivation for both males and females in England.[1] England-wide data for 2006-2010 show European age-standardised incidence rates are 86% higher for males living in the most deprived areas compared with the least deprived, and 93% higher for females.[1]

Stomach Cancer (C16), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates by Deprivation Quintile, England, 2006-2010

The estimated deprivation gradient in stomach cancer incidence between people living in the most and least deprived areas in England has narrowed for males in the period 1996-2010, but has not changed for females.[1] It has been estimated that there would have been around 1,400 fewer cancer cases each year in England during 2006-2010 if all people experienced the same incidence rates as the least deprived.[1

Last reviewed:

Age-standardised rates for White males with stomach cancer range from 14.1 to 14.7 per 100,000. Rates for Asian males are significantly lower, ranging from 5.2 to 8.5 per 100,000 whereas rates for Black males are significantly higher, ranging from 16.1 to 25.6 per 100,000. For females there is a similar pattern - the age-standardised rates for White females range from 5.5 to 5.8 per 100,000, while rates for Asian females are significantly lower, ranging from 2.7 to 5.0 per 100,000, and the rates for Black females are significantly higher ranging from 6.5 to 11.9 per 100,000.[1]

Ranges are given because of the analysis methodology used to account for missing and unknown data. For stomach cancer, 33,789 cases were identified; 18% had no known ethnicity.

Last reviewed:

In the UK around 13,400 people were still alive at the end of 2006, up to ten years after being diagnosed with stomach cancer.[1]

Stomach Cancer (C16), One, Five and Ten Year Cancer Prevalence, UK, 31st December 2006

1 Year Prevalence 5 Year Prevalence 10 Year Prevalence
Male 2,608 6,160 8,587
Female 1,337 3,322 4,765
Persons 3,945 9,482 13,352

Worldwide, it is estimated that there were around 1.60 million men and women still alive in 2008, up to five years after their diagnosis.[2]

References

  1. National Cancer Intelligence Network (NCIN). One, Five and Ten Year Cancer Prevalence. London: NCIN; 2010.
  2. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed December 2013.
Last reviewed:

Stomach cancer is the sixth most common cancer in Europe, with more than 139,000 new cases diagnosed in 2012 (4% of the total). In Europe (2012), the highest World age-standardised incidence rates for stomach cancer are in Belarus for men and Albania for women; the lowest rates are in Sweden for both men and women. UK stomach cancer incidence rates are estimated to be the fifth lowest in males in Europe, and fourth lowest in females.[1] These data are broadly in line with Europe-specific data available elsewhere.[2]

Stomach cancer is the fifth most common cancer worldwide, with more than 951,000 new cases diagnosed in 2012 (7% of the total). Stomach cancer incidence rates are highest in Eastern Asia and lowest in Western Africa, but this partly reflects varying data quality worldwide.[1]

References

  1. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed December 2013.
  2. Ferlay J, Steliarova-Foucher E, Lortet-Tieulent J, et al.Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in Europe: Estimates for 40 countries in 2012. European Journal of Cancer (2013) 49, 1374-1403.
Last reviewed:

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