Stomach cancer incidence statistics

Stomach cancer is the 16th most common cancer in the UK (2012), accounting for 2% of all new cases. In males it is the 12th most common cancer (3% of the male total), while it is the 16th in females (1% of all new cases).[1-4]

In 2012, there were 6,986 new cases of stomach cancer in the UK: 4,565 (65%) in men and 2,421 (35%) in women, giving a male:female ratio of around 19:10.[1-4] The crude incidence rate Open a glossary item shows that there are 15 new stomach cancer cases for every 100,000 males in the UK, and 8 for every 100,000 females.

The European age-standardised incidence rate Open a glossary item (AS) is significantly lower for males in England compared with Wales and Scotland. For females, rates are significantly lower in England compared with Scotland.[1-4] However, the rates do not differ significantly between the other countries for either sex.

Stomach Cancer (C16), Number of New Cases, Crude and European Age-Standardised (AS) Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2012

England Wales Scotland Northern Ireland UK
Male Cases 3,718 287 450 110 4,565
Crude Rate 14.1 19.0 17.5 12.3 14.6
AS Rate 17.8 21.6 21.7 18.0 18.3
AS Rate - 95% LCL 17.2 19.1 19.7 14.6 17.8
AS Rate - 95% UCL 18.4 24.1 23.7 21.4 18.9
Female Cases 1,919 148 282 72 2,421
Crude Rate 7.1 9.5 10.3 7.7 7.5
AS Rate 7.2 8.8 10.2 8.8 7.6
AS Rate - 95% LCL 6.9 7.4 9.0 6.7 7.3
AS Rate - 95% UCL 7.6 10.2 11.4 10.8 7.9
Persons Cases 5,637 435 732 182 6,986
Crude Rate 10.5 14.2 13.8 10.0 11.0
AS Rate 11.9 14.5 15.1 12.8 12.4
AS Rate - 95% LCL 11.6 13.1 14.0 10.9 12.1
AS Rate - 95% UCL 12.2 15.8 16.2 14.6 12.6

95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and upper confidence limits Open a glossary item around the AS rate Open a glossary item

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

Stomach cancer incidence in the UK has been highest in the north of England, Wales and Scotland since at least the 1990s.[5] The latest analysis of stomach cancer incidence rates throughout the UK still reports significant variation between cancer networks, with higher than average rates in the north of England and the West Midlands, Wales, Northern Ireland and parts of Scotland.[6,7]

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, June 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.
  5. Quinn M, Wood H, Cooper N, et al, eds. Cancer Atlas of the United Kingdom and Ireland 1991–2000. Studies on Medical and Population Subjects No. 68. London: ONS; 2005.
  6. NCIN. Cancer Incidence and Mortality by Cancer Network, UK, 2005. London: NCIN; 2008.
  7. NCIN. Cancer e-Atlas. Accessed January 2014
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Stomach cancer incidence is strongly related to age, with the highest incidence rates being in older men and women. In the UK between 2010 and 2012, an average of 51% cases were diagnosed in men and women aged 75 and over.[1-4]

Age-specific incidence rates rise sharply from around age 60-64, peak in the 85-89 age group, and subsequently drop sharply in those aged 90+. Incidence rates are higher for males than for females in those aged 35 and over (in the younger age groups the sex difference is not significant) and this gap is widest at the ages of 65 to 69, when the male:female incidence ratio of age-specific rates (to account for the different proportions of males to females in each age group) is around 29:10.[1-4]

Stomach Cancer (C16), Average Number of New Cases per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates, UK, 2010-2012

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, June 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.
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Stomach cancer incidence rates have decreased overall in Great Britain since the late-1970s.[1-3] For males, European age-standardised Open a glossary item (AS) incidence rates decreased by 61% between 1979-1981 and 2010-2012. The decline is similar for women, with rates decreasing by 65% between 1979-1981 and 2010-2012.

Much of this decrease can be attributed to declining prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection (a major cause of stomach cancer), and increased fresh food in the diet (and use of refrigeration rather than salting for food preservation).[4-7] This overall trend masks a rise in incidence of cancers in the cardia over the last 30 years in many developed countries, particularly in males, although rates have begun to decline in England since the late 1990s.[6,8]

Stomach Cancer (C16), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, Great Britain, 1979-2012

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

Over the last decade (between 2001-2003 and 2010-2012), the European AS incidence rates in stomach cancer for the UK have decreased by 31% and 29% in males and females, respectively.[1-3,9]

Stomach Cancer (C16), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, UK, 1993-2011

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

Stomach cancer incidence rates have decreased overall for all of the broad age groups in Great Britain since the late-1970s.[1-3] The largest decreases has been in people aged 60-69, with European AS incidence rates decreasing by more than two thirds (68%) between 1979-1981 and 2010-2012. The smallest change has been in people aged 25-49, with European AS incidence rates falling by almost a half (47%) between 1979-1981 and 2010-2012.

Stomach Cancer (C16), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, Persons, by Age, Great Britain, 1975-2011

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080.
  4. Vyse AJ, Gay NJ, Hesketh LM, et al. The burden of Helicobacter pylori infection in England and Wales. Epidemiol Infect 2002;128:411-7.
  5. NCIN. Incidence of stomach cancer in England, 1998-2007. London: NCIN; 2010.
  6. Coupland VH, Allum W, Blazeby JM, et al. Incidence and survival of oesophageal and gastric cancer in England between 1998 and 2007, a population-based study. BMC Cancer 2012;12:11.
  7. Tsugane S. Salt, Salted food intake, and risk of gastric cancer: epidemiologic evidence. Cancer Sci 2005;96:1-6.
  8. Newnham A, Quinn MJ, Babb P, et al. Trends in the subsite and morphology of oesophageal and gastric cancer in England and Wales 1971-1998. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003;17:665-76.
  9. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, June 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.
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The lifetime risk of developing stomach cancer is 1 in 67 for men and around 1 in 135 for women, in 2012 in the UK.[1]

The lifetime risk for stomach cancer has been calculated to account for the possibility that someone can have more than one diagnosis of stomach cancer over the course of their lifetime (‘Adjusted for Multiple Primaries’ (AMP) method).[2]

References

  1. Lifetime risk estimates calculated by the Statistical Information Team at Cancer Research UK. Based on data provided by the Office of National Statistics, ISD Scotland, the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit and the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry, on request, December 2013 to July 2014.
  2. Sasieni PD, Shelton J, Ormiston-Smith N, et al. What is the lifetime risk of developing cancer?: The effect of adjusting for multiple primaries. Br J Cancer, 2011. 105(3): p. 460-5.
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The largest proportion of stomach cancer cases occur in the cardia, with much smaller proportions in the pyloric antrum and body of the stomach (2010-2012).[1-4]

The proportion of cases in the cardia is higher in males (34.0%) than females (19.7%) and there are no marked sex differences in other parts of the stomach.[1-4]

A large proportion of cases did not have the specific part of the stomach recorded in cancer registry data, or overlapped more than one part.[1-4]

Stomach Cancer (C16), Percentage Distribution of Cases Diagnosed By Anatomical Site, UK, 2010-2012

Male Female
Cancer site (ICD-10 code) Average Cases % Average Cases %
Cardia (C16.0) 1,576 34.0% 497 19.7%
Fundus of Stomach (C16.1) 119 2.6% 69 2.7%
Body of Stomach (C16.2) 295 6.4% 184 7.3%
Pyloric Antrum (C16.3) 327 7.1% 240 9.5%
Pylorus (C16.4) 163 3.5% 119 4.7%
Lesser Curvature of Stomach, Unspecified (C16.5) 261 5.6% 129 5.1%
Greater Curvature of Stomach, Unspecified (C16.6) 84 1.8% 61 2.4%
Stomach, Overlapping and Unspecified (C16.8-C16.9) 1,811 39.1% 1,222 48.5%
Total 4,637 100.0% 2,521 100.0%

Cases and percentages may not sum due to rounding

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, June 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/CancerInformation/.
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Most stomach cancers (around 95%) are adenocarcinomas Open a glossary item which may be further classified into 'intestinal' and 'diffuse' type.

'Intestinal' adenocarcinomas are associated with a history of atrophic gastritis, have better survival and are associated with older patients, whereas the 'diffuse' adenocarcinomas are more common, with poorer survival and occur more frequently in women and people with blood group 'A'.[1]

Other stomach malignant histologies include lymphomas and leiomyosarcomas.

References

  1. Souhami R, Tobias J. Cancer and its management. Fifth Edition. Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd. 2005.
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Stomach cancer is the sixth most common cancer in Europe, with more than 139,000 new cases diagnosed in 2012 (4% of the total). In Europe (2012), the highest World age-standardised Open a glossary item incidence rates for stomach cancer are in Belarus for men and Albania for women; the lowest rates are in Sweden for both men and women. UK stomach cancer incidence rates are estimated to be the fifth lowest in males in Europe, and fourth lowest in females.[1] These data are broadly in line with Europe-specific data available elsewhere.[2]

Stomach cancer is the fifth most common cancer worldwide, with more than 951,000 new cases diagnosed in 2012 (7% of the total). Stomach cancer incidence rates are highest in Eastern Asia and lowest in Western Africa, but this partly reflects varying data quality worldwide.[1]

References

  1. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed December 2013.
  2. Ferlay J, Steliarova-Foucher E, Lortet-Tieulent J, et al.Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in Europe: Estimates for 40 countries in 2012. European Journal of Cancer (2013) 49, 1374-1403.
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Incidence and mortality from stomach cancer are strongly related to social class and measures of deprivation, with higher rates in socially and economically deprived groups.[1]

Using Carstairs deprivation scores (a score of material deprivation derived from four census variables - car ownership, household overcrowding, head of household in social class IV or V and male unemployment), the incidence and mortality rates in England and Wales are about twice as high in the most deprived groups compared to the least deprived.[2] Recent data for England for 2000-2004 show this relationship persists, with the most deprived having European age-standardised Open a glossary item rates of 14.6 per 100,000 compared with 8.0 for the least deprived.[3]

A strong association with social deprivation is also reported for Scotland.[4]

Age-standardised incidence and mortality, cause-specific five-year survival by deprivation quintile, stomach cancer, Scotland, patients diagnosed 1991-1995

The rates are standardised to the European population

References

  1. Quinn M, Cooper N, Rowan S. Cancer Atlas of the United Kingdom and Ireland 1991-2000. Office for National Statistics, 2005.
  2. Quinn M, Babb P, Brock A, et al. Cancer Trends in England & Wales 1950-1999 (PDF 5897KB) SMPS No. 66: TSO, 2001.
  3. National Cancer Intelligence Network. Cancer Incidence by Deprivation, England 1995-2004. London: NCIN; 2008.
  4. Scottish Cancer Intelligence Unit (2000). Trends in Cancer Survival in Scotland 1971-1995. Edinburgh: Information and Statistics Division.
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Age-standardised rates for White males with stomach cancer range from 14.1 to 14.7 per 100,000. Rates for Asian males are significantly lower, ranging from 5.2 to 8.5 per 100,000 whereas rates for Black males are significantly higher, ranging from 16.1 to 25.6 per 100,000. For females there is a similar pattern - the age-standardised rates for White females range from 5.5 to 5.8 per 100,000, while rates for Asian females are significantly lower, ranging from 2.7 to 5.0 per 100,000, and the rates for Black females are significantly higher ranging from 6.5 to 11.9 per 100,000.[1]

Ranges are given because of the analysis methodology used to account for missing and unknown data. For stomach cancer, 33,789 cases were identified; 18% had no known ethnicity.

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Prevalence refers to the number of people who have previously received a diagnosis of cancer and who are still alive at a given time point. Some patients will have been cured of their disease and others will not.

In the UK around 13,400 people were still alive at the end of 2006, up to ten years after being diagnosed with stomach cancer.[1]

Stomach Cancer (C16), One, Five and Ten Year Cancer Prevalence, UK, 31st December 2006

1 Year Prevalence 5 Year Prevalence 10 Year Prevalence
Male 2,608 6,160 8,587
Female 1,337 3,322 4,765
Persons 3,945 9,482 13,352

Worldwide, it is estimated that there were around 1.60 million men and women still alive in 2008, up to five years after their diagnosis.[2]

References

  1. National Cancer Intelligence Network (NCIN). One, Five and Ten Year Cancer Prevalence. London: NCIN; 2010.
  2. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed December 2013.
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