Non-Hodgkin lymphoma incidence statistics

Cases

New cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 2014, UK

 

Proportion of all cases

Percentage non-Hodgkin lymphoma is of total cancer cases, 2014, UK

 

Age

Peak rate of non-Hodgkin lymphoma cases, 2012-2014, UK

Trend over time

Change in non-Hodgkin cancer incidence rates since the early 1990s, UK

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (all subtypes combined) is the fifth most common cancer in the UK (2014), accounting for 4% of all new cases. In males, it is the seventh most common cancer (4% of the male total), whilst it is the seventh in females (3%).[1-4]

In 2014 there were 13,605 new cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the UK: 7,514 (55%) in males and 6,091 (45%) in females, giving a male:female ratio of around 12:10.[1-4] The crude incidence rate Open a glossary item shows that there are 24 new NHL cases for every 100,000 males in the UK, and 19 for every 100,000 females.

For both sexes, the European age-standardised incidence rates Open a glossary item (AS rate) are significantly higher in England compared to Scotland.For males only, the rate is significantly higher in England compared to Wales.[1-4] Rates do not differ significantly between the other constituent countries of the UK for either sex.[1-4]

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (C82-C86), Number of New Cases, Crude and European Age-Standardised (AS) Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2014

England Wales Scotland Northern Ireland UK
Male Cases 6,448 318 572 176 7,514
Crude Rate 24.1 20.9 22.0 19.5 23.6
AS Rate 28.2 22.2 24.4 25.5 27.5
AS Rate - 95% LCL 27.5 19.8 22.4 21.8 26.8
AS Rate - 95% UCL 28.8 24.6 26.4 29.3 28.1
Female Cases 5,172 277 475 167 6,091
Crude Rate 18.8 17.6 17.3 17.8 18.6
AS Rate 19.4 17.0 17.2 19.8 19.1
AS Rate - 95% LCL 18.9 15.0 15.6 16.8 18.6
AS Rate - 95% UCL 20.0 19.0 18.7 22.8 19.6
Persons Cases 11,620 595 1,047 343 13,605
Crude Rate 21.4 19.2 19.6 18.6 21.1
AS Rate 23.4 19.3 20.6 22.3 22.9
AS Rate - 95% LCL 23.0 17.8 19.4 19.9 22.5
AS Rate - 95% UCL 23.8 20.9 21.8 24.7 23.3

95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and upper confidence limits Open a glossary item around the AS Rate Open a glossary item

For non-Hodgkin lymphoma, there are few established risk factors therefore differences between countries largely reflect differences in diagnosis and data recording.

The term ‘non-Hodgkin lymphoma’ describes a large group of lymphoma subtypes, which differ substantially in their cellular origin and clinical behaviour. The subtypes can be broadly divided into B-cell lymphomas, T-cell lymphomas, and lymphoproliferative disorders not otherwise specified. B-cell lymphomas can be further divided into five main types: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, marginal zone lymphomas, follicular lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, and Burkitt lymphoma. It is important to recognise the homogeneity of these subtypes when interpreting statistics on NHL as a whole. The Haematological Malignancy Research Network provides detailed incidence statistics for NHL subtypes.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/

About this data

Data is for UK, 2014, C82-C86

The term 'non-Hodgkin lymphoma' describes a large group of lymphoma subtypes, which differ substantially in their cellular origin and clinical behaviour. It is important to recognise the homogeneity of these subtypes when interpreting statistics on NHL as a whole.

Last reviewed:

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (all subtypes combined) incidence is strongly related to age, with the highest incidence rates being in older males and females. In the UK in 2012-2014, on average each year around half (49%) of cases were diagnosed in people aged 70 and over.[1-4]

Age-specific incidence rates rise steeply from around age 50-54, reaching an overall peak in the 85-89 age group for both males and females, and subsequently dropping. Incidence rates are higher for males than females for those aged between 0-4 and 15-19, and 25-29 and over, and this gap is widest at the ages of 5 to 9, when the male: female ratio of age-specific incidence rates (to account for the different proportions of males to females in each age group) is around 28:10.[1-4]

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (C82-C86), Average Number of New Cases per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates, UK, 2012-2014

For NHL, like most cancer types, incidence increases with age. This largely reflects cell DNA damage accumulating over time. Damage can result from biological processes or from exposure to risk factors. A drop or plateau in incidence in the oldest age groups often indicates reduced diagnostic activity perhaps due to general ill health.

The term 'non-Hodgkin lymphoma' describes a large group of lymphoma subtypes, which differ substantially in their cellular origin and clinical behaviour. The subtypes can be broadly divided into B-cell lymphomas, T-cell lymphomas, and lymphoproliferative disorders not otherwise specified. B-cell lymphomas can be further divided into five main types: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, marginal zone lymphomas, follicular lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, and Burkitt lymphoma. It is important to recognise the homogeneity of these subtypes when interpreting statistics on NHL as a whole. The Haematological Malignancy Research Network provides detailed incidence statistics for NHL subtypes.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2012-2014, ICD-10 C82-C86

The term 'non-Hodgkin lymphoma' describes a large group of lymphoma subtypes, which differ substantially in their cellular origin and clinical behaviour. It is important to recognise the homogeneity of these subtypes when interpreting statistics on NHL as a whole.

Last reviewed:

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (all subtypes combined) incidence rates have increased by 39% in the UK since the early 1990s.[1-4] Non-Hodgkin lymphoma incidence rates increased by 78% (persons) in Great Britain between 1979-1981 and 1991-1993.[1-3]

For males, European age-standardised (AS) Open a glossary item incidence rates have increased by more than a third (36% increase) between 1993-1995 and 2012-2014. This rise is similar for females, with rates having increased by 40% between 1993-1995 and 2012-2014.

Over the last decade in the UK (between 2003-2005 and 2012-2014), NHL AS incidence rates have increased by 16% for males and females combined, with a similar increase in males (17%) and females (15%).[1-4]

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (C82-C86), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, UK, 1993-2014

NHL incidence rates have increased for most of the broad age groups in the UK since the early 1990s.[1-4] The largest increase has been in people aged 80+, with European AS incidence rates rising by 64% between 1993-1995 and 2012-2014.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (C82-C86), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, By Age, Persons, UK, 1993-2014​

For non-Hodgkin lymphoma, like most cancer types, incidence trends largely reflect changing prevalence of risk factors and improvements in diagnosis and data recording. Recent incidence trends are influenced by risk factor prevalence in years past, and trends by age group reflect risk factor exposure in birth cohorts.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/

About this data

Data is for UK, 1993-2014, ICD-10 C82-86

Last reviewed:

Staging completeness for non-Hodgkin lymphoma is moderate in England, with 78% of non-Hodgkin lymphoma cases recorded with a known stage at diagnosis in 2014.[1]

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (C82-C85), Proportion of Cases Diagnosed at Each Stage, England 2014

People diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma with a known stage most commonly present at stage IV (45%), in England. More people with a known stage are diagnosed at an advanced stage (64% diagnosed at stage III or IV) than an early stage (36% diagnosed at stage I or II ).[1]

References

  1. National Cancer Registration and Analysis Service. Stage Breakdown by CCG 2014. London: NCRAS; 2016.

About this data

Data is for: England, 2014, ICD-10 C82-C85

Stage at diagnosis data is not yet routinely available for the UK due to inconsistencies in the collecting and recording of staging data in the past.

Last reviewed:

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) incidence rates are projected to fall by 2% in the UK between 2014 and 2035, to 26 cases per 100,000 people by 2035.[1] This includes a smaller decrease for males than for females.

For males, non-Hodgkin lymphoma European age-standardised (AS) Open a glossary item incidence rates in the UK are projected to fall by 3% between 2014 and 2035, to 32 cases per 100,000 by 2035.[1] For females, rates are projected to fall by 3% between 2014 and 2035, to 22 cases per 100,000 by 2035.[1]

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (C82-C85), Observed and Projected Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, by Sex, UK, 1979-2035

 

It is projected that 18,621 cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (10,489 in males, 8,132 in females) will be diagnosed in the UK in 2035.

References

  1. Smittenaar CR, Petersen KA, Stewart K, Moitt N. Cancer Incidence and Mortality Projections in the UK Until 2035. Brit J Cancer 2016.

About this data

Data is for: UK, 1979-2014 (observed), 2015-2035 (projected), ICD-10 C82-C85

Projections are based on observed incidence and mortality rates and therefore implicitly include changes in cancer risk factors, diagnosis and treatment. It is not possible to assess the statistical significance of changes between 2014 (observed) and 2035 (projected) figures. Confidence intervals are not calculated for the projected figures. Projections are by their nature uncertain because unexpected events in future could change the trend. It is not sensible to calculate a boundary of uncertainty around these already uncertain point estimates. Changes are described as 'increase' or 'decrease' if there is any difference between the point estimates.

More on projections methodology

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The lifetime risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (all subtypes combined) is 1 in 48 for men and 1 in 58 for women, in 2012 in the UK.[1]

The lifetime risk for NHL has been calculated on the assumption that the possibility of having more than one diagnosis of NHL over the course of a lifetime is very low (‘Current Probability’ method).[2]

References

  1. Lifetime risk estimates calculated by the Statistical Information Team at Cancer Research UK. Based on data provided by the Office of National Statistics, ISD Scotland, the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit and the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry, on request, December 2013 to July 2014.
  2. Esteve J, Benhamou E and Raymond L. Descriptive epidemiology. IARC Scientific Publications No.128, Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer, pp 67-68 1994.
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There is evidence for a small association between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) incidence and deprivation for females in England, but there is no evidence for an association for males.[1] England-wide data for 2006-2010 show European age-standardised Open a glossary item incidence rates are 6% higher for females living in the most deprived areas compared with the least deprived, but for males the rates are similar for those living in the least and most deprived areas.[1]

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (C82-C85), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates by Deprivation Quintile, England, 2006-2010

For males diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma the deprivation gradient has gone from having higher incidence rates in the less deprived in 1996-2000 to having higher incidence rates in the more deprived in 2006-2010. The estimated deprivation gradient in non-Hodgkin lymphoma incidence between people living in the most and least deprived areas in England has not changed in the period 1996-2010.

It has been estimated that there would have been around 50 more cancer cases each year amongst males in England during 2006-2010 if all males experienced the same incidence rates as the least deprived.[1]

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Age-standardised Open a glossary item rates for White males with Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (ICD-10 C82-C85 and C96) range from 15.7 to 16.5 per 100,000. Rates for Asian males are similar, ranging from 10.3 to 16.9 per 100,000 and the rates for Black males are also similar, ranging from 11.4 to 19.6 per 100,000. For females there is a similar pattern - the age-standardised rates for White females range from 11.2 to 11.8 per 100,000 and rates for Asian and Black females are also similar ranging from 7.0 to 11.8 per 100,000 and 8.7 to 15.1 per 100,000 respectively.[1]

There appears to be no significant variation in Non-Hodgkin lymphoma incidence by ethnicity in the UK.[1,2] However, US data shows that since 1992, NHL rates have been significantly higher in non-Hispanic white people than in black people.[3]

Ranges are given because of the analysis methodology used to account for missing and unknown data. For Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 42,576 cases were identified; 21% had no known ethnicity.

References

  1. National Cancer Intelligence Network (NCIN) and Cancer Research UK. Cancer Incidence and Survival by Major Ethnic Group, England, 2002-2006. London: NCIN; 2009.
  2. Ross JRY, Oliver SE. National Cancer Intelligence Network (NCIN) analyses of haematological malignancy. Incidence and survival by sex, ethnicity, deprivation, year of diagnosis and cancer network in the United Kingdom. Brit J Haematol 2010;149:57.
  3. Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results. Age-Adjusted SEER Incidence Rates and 95% Confidence Intervals; By Race/Ethnicity; Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, All Ages, Both Sexes; 1992- 2009. Accessed at: http://seer.cancer.gov. Accessed September 2012.
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In the UK around 46,000 people were still alive at the end of 2006, up to ten years after being diagnosed with Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (all subtypes combined).[1]

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (C82-C85 and C96), One, Five and Ten Year Cancer Prevalence, UK, 31st December 2006

1 Year Prevalence 5 Year Prevalence 10 Year Prevalence
Male 4,094 15,378 24,004
Female 3,497 13,674 21,768
Persons 7,591 29,052 45,772

Worldwide, it is estimated that there were around 772,000 men and women still alive in 2008, up to five years after their diagnosis.[2]

References

  1. National Cancer Intelligence Network (NCIN). One, Five and Ten Year Cancer Prevalence by Cancer Network, UK, 2006. London: NCIN; 2010.
  2. Ferlay J Shin HR, Bray F, et al. GLOBOCAN 2008 v1.2, Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 10 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2010. Available from http://globocan.iarc.fr.
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Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (C82-C85 and C96) is the 11th most common cancer in Europe, with around 93,500 new cases diagnosed in 2012 (3% of the total). In Europe (2012), the highest World age-standardised Open a glossary item incidence rates for NHL are in Italy for men and the Netherlands for women; the lowest rates are in Albania for both men and women. UK NHL incidence rates are estimated to the ninth highest in males in Europe, and eighth highest in females.[1] These data are broadly in line with Europe-specific data available elsewhere.[2]

NHL (C82-C85 and C96) is the tenth most common cancer worldwide, with nearly 386,000 new cases diagnosed in 2012 (3% of the total). NHL incidence rates are highest in Northern America and lowest in South Central Asia, but this partly reflects varying data quality worldwide.[1]

Variation between countries may reflect different prevalence of risk factors, use of screening, and diagnostic methods.

References

  1. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Available from:http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed December 2013.
  2. Ferlay J, Steliarova-Foucher E, Lortet-Tieulent J, et al.Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in Europe: Estimates for 40 countries in 2012. European Journal of Cancer (2013) 49, 1374-1403.
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