Non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk factors

Prevention

Preventable cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, UK

H. Pylori

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma cases linked to Helicobacter pylori infection, UK

Occupational exposures

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma cases linked to occupational exposures, UK

6% of Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (all subtypes combined) cases each year in the UK are linked to major lifestyle and other risk factors.[1]

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma risk is associated with a number of risk factors.[2,3]

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Risk Factors

Increases risk ('sufficient' or 'convincing' evidence) May increase risk ('limited' or 'probable' evidence) Decreases risk ('sufficient' or 'convincing' evidence) May decrease risk ('limited' or 'probable' evidence)
  • Working in rubber production[a]
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), immune suppression related
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type I
  • Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)[b]
  • Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV)[c]
  • Helicobacter Pylori (H. Pylori)[d]
  • Azathioprine
  • Cyclosporine
  • Benzene
  • Ethylene oxide
  • 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin
  • X radiation, gamma radiation
  • Hepatitis B virus (HBV)
  • Polychlorophenols or their sodium salts (combined exposures)
  • Tetrachloroethylene
  • Trichloroethylene

-

-

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classification. World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) classification does not include testicular cancer because the evidence is very limited.

a Classification for ‘lymphoma’ not NHL specifically. b Classification for adult T-cell lymphoma. c Classification for primary effusion lymphoma. d Classification for low-grade B-cell mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) gastric lymphoma.

Last reviewed:

NHL risk is associated with a number of infections, because immune dysregulation plays a pivotal role in lymphomagenesis (the development of lymphoma). But because these infections are relatively uncommon in the UK, they account for a fairly small proportion of UK NHL cases.[1]

Last reviewed:

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type I is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a cause of NHL.[1] An estimated 0.6% of NHL cases in the UK are linked to HIV.[2]

NHL risk is around 11 times higher in people with HIV, compared with the general population, a cohort study has shown.[3] Risk varies by NHL subtype; the risks of AIDS-defining NHL subtypes (including DLBCL) are 18+ times higher in people with HIV versus the general population, while the risks of non AIDS-defining NHL subtypes are increased to a lesser extent, a cohort study showed.[4] NHL risk in HIV-positive people increases with HIV severity, cohort studies have shown.[5,6]

HIV-associated NHL risk has decreased markedly since highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was introduced to treat HIV in 1996,[7-11] probably because HAART improves immune system functioning.[12]

References

  1. Cogliano VJ, Baan R, Straif K, et al. Preventable Exposures Associated With Human Cancers. JNCI 2011;103(24):1827-39.
  2. Parkin DM. 11. Cancers attributable to infection in the UK in 2010. Brit J Cancer 2011;105 Suppl 2:S49-56.
  3. Seaberg EC, Wiley D, Martínez-Maza O, et al. Cancer incidence in the multicenter aids cohort study before and during the HAART era: 1984 to 2007. Cancer 2010;116:5507-16.
  4. Gibson TM1, Morton LM, Shiels MS, et al. Risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes in HIV-infected people during the HAART era: a population-based study. AIDS 2014 Sep;28(15):2313-8.
  5. Achenbach CJ, Buchanan AL, Cole SR, et al. HIV Viremia and Incidence of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in Patients Successfully Treated With Antiretroviral Therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2014.
  6. Engels EA, Pfeiffer RM, Landgren O, et al. Immunologic and virologic predictors of AIDS-related non-hodgkin lymphoma in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010;54(1):78-84.
  7. Roman E, Smith AG. Epidemiology of lymphomas. Histopathology 2011;58:4-14.
  8. Boffetta PI. Epidemiology of adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Ann Oncol 2011;22:iv27-iv31.
  9. Grulich AE, van Leeuwen MT, Falster MO, et al. Incidence of cancers in people with HIV/AIDS compared with immunosuppressed transplant recipients: a meta-analysis. Lancet 2007;370:59-67.
  10. Engels EA, Pfeiffer RM, Goedert JJ, et al. Trends in cancer risk among people with AIDS in the United States 1980-2002. AIDS 2006;20:1645-54.
  11. International Collaboration on HIV and Cancer. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and Incidence of Cancer in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Adults. J Natl Cancer I 2000;92:1823-30.
  12. Palmieri C, Treibel T, Large O, et al. AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the first decade of highly active antiretroviral therapy. QJM 2006;99:811-26.
Last reviewed:

Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) infection is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a cause of gastric NHL (low-grade B-cell MALT).[1] An estimated 3% of NHL cases in the UK are linked to H Pylori.[2]

marginal zone lymphomas (MZL) risk is 1.6 times higher in people with an ulcer (used as a proxy measure for H. Pylori infection), a pooled analysis showed.[3]

Last reviewed:

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a cause of NHL, and hepatitis B virus (HBV) is classified as a probable cause of NHL, based on limited evidence.[1] An estimated 0.5% of NHL cases in the UK are linked to HBV or HCV infection.[2]

NHL patients are more than twice as likely to have HBV infection, compared with healthy controls, meta-analyses have shown.[3-5]

Marginal zone lymphomas (MZL) risk is 3 times higher in people with a history of HCV infection, a pooled analysis showed.[6] Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) risk is 2 times higher in people with a history of HCV infection versus those without, a pooled analysis showed.[7]

Last reviewed:

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) related to immune suppression is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a cause of NHL.[1] An estimated 0.3% of NHL cases in the UK are linked to EBV infection.[2]

NHL risk is 26% higher in people with previous infectious mononucleosis (which is caused by EBV), a pooled analysis showed.[3] NHL risk is higher in EBV-positive people, a meta-analysis showed.[4]

Last reviewed:

Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a cause of adult T-cell lymphoma.[1] An estimated 0.2% of NHL cases in the UK are linked to HTLV-1 infection.[2]

Up to 5% of people with HTLV-1 develop T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma, a cohort study showed.[3]

Last reviewed:

Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV) is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a cause of primary effusion lymphoma.[1]

Last reviewed:

Azathioprine and cyclosporine, both immunosuppressant drugs, are classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as causes of NHL.[1]

Higher NHL risk in people with immune system problems may relate to use of immunosuppressant medication, as well as to underlying medical condition.

Last reviewed:

NHL risk is 14-19 times higher in people with primary Sjogren’s syndrome;[1] 6-7 times higher in people with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE);[1,2] 2-4 times higher in people with rheumatoid arthritis;[1,3] 2-6-4.4 times higher in people with coeliac disease (enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphomas – EATCL/EATL),[4,5] and 2.7 times higher in people with systemic sclerosis,[6] compared with the general population, meta-analyses have shown.

The NHL subtypes most often associated with autoimmunity are diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and marginal zone lymphomas (MZL).[7-10]

Immune dysregulation underpins both autoimmune disease and lymphoma development. NHL risk (B-cell NHL subtypes) in inflammatory rheumatic disease patients may be higher in those receiving antitumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNFα) treatment.[11,12]

References

  1. Zintzaras E, Voulgarelis M, Moutsopoulos HM. The risk of lymphoma development in autoimmune diseases: A meta-analysis. Arch Int Med 2005;165:2337-44.
  2. Apor E, O'Brien J, Stephen M, Castillo JJ. Systemic lupus erythematosus is associated with increased incidence of hematologic malignancies: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Leuk Res 2014;38(9):1067-71.
  3. Smitten AL, Simon TA, Hochberg MC, et al. A meta-analysis of the incidence of malignancy in adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther 2008;10:R45.
  4. Kane E, Newton R, Roman E. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma and gluten-sensitive enteropathy: estimate of risk using meta-analyses. Cancer Cause Control 2011;22:1435-44.
  5. Tio M, Cox MR, Eslick GD. Meta-analysis: coeliac disease and the risk of all-cause mortality, any malignancy and lymphoid malignancy. Aliment Pharm Ther 2012;35:540-51.
  6. Zhang JQ, Wan YN, Peng WJ, et al. The risk of cancer development in systemic sclerosis: a meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol. 2013;37(5):523-7.
  7. Dias C, Isenberg DA. Susceptibility of patients with rheumatic diseases to B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Nat Rev Rheumatol 2011;7:360-8.
  8. Ansell P, Simpson J, Lightfoot T, et al. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma and autoimmunity: Does gender matter? Int J Cancer 2011;129:460-6.
  9. Anderson LA, Gadalla S, Morton LM, et al. Population-based study of autoimmune conditions and the risk of specific lymphoid malignancies. Int J Cancer 2009;125:398-405.
  10. Ekström Smedby K, Vajdic CM, Falster M, et al. Autoimmune disorders and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes: a pooled analysis within the InterLymph Consortium. Blood 2008;111:4029-38.
  11. Wong A, Kerkoutian S, Said J, et al. Risk of lymphoma in patients receiving antitumor necrosis factor therapy: a meta-analysis of published randomized controlled studies. Clin Rheumatol 2012;31:631-6.
  12. Mariette X, Matucci-Cerinic M, Pavelka K, et al. Malignancies associated with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors in registries and prospective observational studies: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Rheum Dis 2011;70:1895-904.
Last reviewed:

NHL risk is around 8 times higher in organ transplant recipients receiving immunosuppressant medication, cohort and case-control studies have shown; these patients usually develop diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL).[1-4]

Last reviewed:

NHL risk is associated with some allergic and atopic conditions, but the direction and extent of association varies with NHL type and allergy/atopy type, pooled analyses have shown.[1-5]

Last reviewed:

NHL risk is higher in people with a first-degree relative (parent, sibling, child) with NHL, a pooled analysis and cohort study have shown;[1,2] relatives may develop the same NHL subtype.[3]

NHL risk may be higher in people with a first degree relative with other cancer types, particularly haematological cancers, pooled analyses of case-control studies have shown.[4-9]

Self-reported family history information and changes over time in NHL classification may impact on the reliability of this evidence.

References

  1. Wang SS, Slager SL, Brennan P, et al. Family history of hematopoietic malignancies and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL): a pooled analysis of 10 211 cases and 11 905 controls from the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph). Blood 2007;109:3479-88.
  2. Crump C, Sundquist K, Sieh W, et al. Perinatal and Family Risk Factors for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in Early Life: A Swedish National Cohort Study. J Natl Cancer I 2012;104:923-30.
  3. Goldin LR, Björkholm M, Kristinsson SY, et al. Highly increased familial risks for specific lymphoma subtypes. Brit J Haematol 2009;146:91-4.29.
  4. Zhang Y, Wang R, Holford T, et al. Family history of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic malignancies and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer Cause Control 2007;18:351-9.
  5. Negri E, Talamini R, Montella M, et al. Family History of Hemolymphopoietic and Other Cancers and Risk of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma. Cancer Epidem Biomar 2006;15:245-50.
  6. Smedby KE, Sampson JN, Turner JJ, et al. Medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors for mantle cell lymphoma: the InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 2014;2014(48):76-86.
  7. Bracci PM, Benavente Y, Turner JJ, et al. Medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors for marginal zone lymphoma: the InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 2014;2014(48):52-65.
  8. Linet MS, Vajdic CM, Morton LM, et al. Medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors for follicular lymphoma: the InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 2014;2014(48):26-40.
  9. Cerhan JR, Kricker A, Paltiel O, et al. Medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: the InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 2014;2014(48):15-25.
Last reviewed:

NHL risk is higher in people with previous cancer of various types. The most consistent links are with previous Hodgkin lymphoma or leukaemia,[1-4] but risk may also be higher in survivors of melanoma.[5-8] head and neck cancer, or prostate cancer, cohort studies have shown.[8]

This may reflect the effect of treatment for the primary cancer, or shared aetiology.

References

  1. Brennan P, Scelo G, Hemminki K, et al. Second primary cancers among 109[thinsp]000 cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Brit J Cancer 2005;93:159-66.
  2. Royle JS, Baade P, Joske D, et al. Risk of second cancer after lymphohematopoietic neoplasm. Int J Cancer 2011;129:910-9.
  3. Dong C, Hemminki K. Second primary neoplasms among 53 159 haematolymphoproliferative malignancy patients in Sweden, 1958-1996: a search for common mechanisms. Brit J Cancer 2001;85:997-1005.
  4. Jégu J, Colonna M, Daubisse-Marliac L, et al. The effect of patient characteristics on second primary cancer risk in France. BMC Cancer. 2014;14:94.
  5. Goggins WB, Finkelstein DM, Tsao H. Evidence for an association between cutaneous melanoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancer 2001;91:874-80.
  6. Bradford PT, Freedman DM, Goldstein AM, Tucker MA. Increased risk of second primary cancers after a diagnosis of melanoma. Arch Dermatol 2010;146:265-72.
  7. Balamurugan A, Rees JR, Kosary C, et al. Subsequent primary cancers among men and women with in situ and invasive melanoma of the skin. J Am Acad Dermatol 2011;65:S69.e1-S.e9.
  8. Youlden DR, Baade PD. The relative risk of second primary cancers in Queensland, Australia: a retrospective cohort study. BMC Cancer. 2011;11:83.
Last reviewed:

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) risk is 13-14% higher in overweight people (by body mass index [BMI]) and 29% higher in obese people, compared with healthy weight people, meta-analyses have shown.[1,2]

DLBCL and follicular lymphoma (FL) risk is also higher in those who had higher BMI in young adulthood, a pooled analysis showed.[3]

Other NHL subtypes are not associated with overweight and obesity, meta-analyses have shown.[1,4]

Last reviewed:

Working in rubber production is classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as a cause of NHL, and benzene, ethylene oxide, 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin, polychlorophenols or their sodium salts (combined exposures), tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene are classified by IARC as probable causes of NHL, based on limited evidence.[1]

NHL risk is higher in people with occupational exposure to trichloroethylene or pesticides.[2-8]

References

  1. Cogliano VJ, Baan R, Straif K, et al. Preventable Exposures Associated With Human Cancers. JNCI 2011;103(24):1827-39.
  2. Scott CS, Jinot J. Trichloroethylene and cancer: systematic and quantitative review of epidemiologic evidence for identifying hazards. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2011;8:4238-72.
  3. Mandel JH, Kelsh MA, Mink PJ, et al. Occupational trichloroethylene exposure and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: a meta-analysis and review. Occup Environ Med 2006;63:597-607.
  4. Merhi M, Raynal H, Cahuzac E, et al. Occupational exposure to pesticides and risk of hematopoietic cancers: meta-analysis of case–control studies. Cancer Cause Control 2007;18:1209-26.
  5. Keller-Byrne JE, Khuder SA, Schaub EA, et al. A meta-analysis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among farmers in the central United States. Am J Industrial Med 1997;31:442-4.
  6. Schinasi L, Leon ME. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma and occupational exposure to agricultural pesticide chemical groups and active ingredients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014;11(4):4449-527.
  7. Karami S, Bassig B, Stewart PA, et al. Occupational trichloroethylene exposure and risk of lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers: a meta-analysis. Occup Environ Med. 2013;70(8):591-9.
  8. Cocco P, Vermeulen R, Flore V, et al. Occupational exposure to trichloroethylene and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and its major subtypes: a pooled InterLymph [correction of IinterLlymph] analysis. Occup Environ Med. 2013;70(11):795-802.
Last reviewed:

Follicular lymphoma (FL) risk is 12% lower per pregnancy, a pooled analysis showed.[1] Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) risk and overall NHL risk is not associated with parity.[1]

Last reviewed:

NHL risk is 22-26% lower in women who started using hormone replacement therapy (HRT) at age 50+, compared with never-users, a pooled analysis showed.[1] NHL risk is reduced in current HRT users but not past users.[1]

Last reviewed:

Follicular lymphoma (FL) risk is 46% higher in women who started using oral contraceptives (OCs) aged 22+, compared with never-users, a pooled analysis showed; this may be limited to use before the mid-1970s, when hormone doses in OCs were higher than today.[1] Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) risk and overall NHL risk is not associated with OC use.[1]

Last reviewed:

Burkitt's Lymphoma (BL) risk among people under age 50 is 2.2 times higher in the tallest people versus the shortest, a pooled analysis showed.[1]

Last reviewed:

NHL risk is lower in people with the highest levels of the following factors, meta- and pooled analyses, systematic reviews or cohort studies have shown:

  • Vegetable intake (may be limited to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma [DLBCL] and follicular lymphoma [FL]).[1]
  • Alcohol intake (though questionable validity since no dose-response effect, and significant findings largely limited to case-control studies).[2-4]
  • UV radiation exposure (though no dose-response effect for most NHL subtypes).[5,6]
  • Parkinson’s disease (with disease versus without).[7]
  • Blood transfusion (DLBCL and FL; the latter only in people who received their first blood transfusion aged 55+).[8,9]
  • Statins (limited to marginal zone lymphoma [MZL])[10].

References

  1. Chen GC, Lv DB, Pang Z, Liu QF. Fruits and vegetables consumption and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Int J Cancer. 2013;133(1):190-200.
  2. Tramacere I, Pelucchi C, Bonifazi M, et al. Alcohol drinking and non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk: a systematic review and a meta-analysis. Ann Oncol 2012;23(11):2791-8.
  3. Morton LM, Zheng T, Holford TR, et al. Alcohol consumption and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a pooled analysis. Lancet Oncol 2005;6:469-76.
  4. Ji J, Sundquist J, Sundquist K. Alcohol consumption has a protective effect against hematological malignancies: a population-based study in sweden including 420,489 individuals with alcohol use disorders. Neoplasia 2014;16(3):229-34.
  5. Cahoon EK, Pfeiffer RM, Wheeler DC, et al. Relationship between ambient ultraviolet radiation and non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes: A U.S. population-based study of racial and ethnic groups. Int J Cancer 2015;136(5):E432-41.
  6. Bracci PM, Benavente Y, Turner JJ, et al. Medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors for marginal zone lymphoma: the InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 2014;2014(48):52-65.
  7. Ong EL, Goldacre R, Goldacre M. Differential risks of cancer types in people with Parkinson's disease: a national record-linkage study. Eur J Cancer 2014;50(14):2456-62.
  8. Linet MS, Vajdic CM, Morton LM, et al. Medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors for follicular lymphoma: the InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 2014;2014(48):26-40.
  9. Cerhan JR, Kricker A, Paltiel O, et al. Medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: the InterLymph Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Subtypes Project. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 2014;2014(48):15-25.
  10. Ye X, Mneina A, Johnston JB, et al. Associations between statin use and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) risk and survival: a meta-analysis. Hematol Oncol. 2015. doi: 10.1002/hon.2265.
Last reviewed:

NHL risk is not associated with the following factors, meta- and pooled analyses, systematic reviews or cohort studies have shown:

  • Tobacco smoking[1] (though some evidence of risk increase for T-cell NHL,[2] or follicular lymphoma (FL),[3], and some evidence of association with environmental tobacco smoke.[4]).
  • Fruit (though some evidence of risk decrease for fruits and vegetables combined).[5]
  • Age at menarche.
  • Age at menopause.[6]
  • Physical activity (though some evidence of risk decrease).[7]
  • Vitamin D (dietary intake or blood levels).[8]
  • Poultry.[9]
  • Eggs.[9]
  • Nitrate and nitrite.[10]

References

  1. Castillo JJ, Dalia S. Cigarette smoking is associated with a small increase in the incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a meta-analysis of 24 observational studies. Leukemia Lymphoma 2012;53:1911-9.
  2. Sergentanis TN, Kanavidis P, Michelakos T, Petridou ET. Cigarette smoking and risk of lymphoma in adults: a comprehensive meta-analysis on Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin disease.. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2013;22(2):131-50.
  3. Gibson TM, Smedby KE, Skibola CF, et al. Smoking, variation in N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) and 2 (NAT2), and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a pooled analysis within the InterLymph consortium. Cancer Causes Control. 2013;24(1):125-34.
  4. Diver WR, Teras LR, Gaudet MM, Gapstur SM. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in nonsmoking men and women. Am J Epidemiol. 2014;179(8):987-95.
  5. Chen GC, Lv DB, Pang Z, Liu QF. Fruits and vegetables consumption and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Int J Cancer. 2013;133(1):190-200.
  6. Kane EV, Roman E, Becker N, et al. Menstrual and reproductive factors, and hormonal contraception use: associations with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in a pooled analysis of InterLymph case-control studies. Ann Oncol. 2012;23(9):2362-74.
  7. Jochem C, Leitzmann MF, Keimling M, Schmid D, Behrens G. Physical activity in relation to risk of hematologic cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014;23(5):833-46.
  8. Lu D, Chen J, Jin J. Vitamin D status and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a meta-analysis. Cancer Causes Control 2014;25(11):1553-63.
  9. Dong Y, Wu G. Lack of association of poultry and eggs intake with risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2016 Jul 13.
  10. Xie L, Mo M, Jia HX, et al. Association between dietary nitrate and nitrite intake and sitespecific cancer risk: evidence from observational studies. Oncotarget. 2016 Jul 29. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.
Last reviewed:

Cancer Statistics Explained

See information and explanations on terminology used for statistics and reporting of cancer, and the methods used to calculate some of our statistics.

Citation

You are welcome to reuse this Cancer Research UK statistics content for your own work.

Credit us as authors by referencing Cancer Research UK as the primary source. Suggested styles are:

Web content: Cancer Research UK, full URL of the page, Accessed [month] [year]. 

Publications: Cancer Research UK ([year of publication]), Name of publication, Cancer Research UK. 

Rate this page:

Currently rated: 3 out of 5 based on 5 votes
Thank you!
We've recently made some changes to the site, tell us what you think

Share this page