Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) incidence statistics

Cases

New cases of acute myeloid leukaemia, 2014, UK

 

Proportion of all cases

Percentage acute myeloid leukaemia is of total cancer cases, 2014, UK

 

Age

Peak rate of acute myeloid leukaemia cases, 2012-2014, UK

Trend since 1970s

Acute myeloid leukaemia incidence rates have increased since the late 1970s, GB

 

Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) accounts for less than 1% of all new cancer cases in the UK, and 32% of all leukaemia types combined (2014).[1-4]

In 2014, there were 3,072 new cases of AML in the UK: 1,758 (57%) in males and 1,314 (43%) in females, giving a male:female ratio of around 13:10.[1-4] The crude incidence rate Open a glossary item shows that there are 6 new AML cases for every 100,000 males in the UK, and 4 for every 100,000 females.

For males, European age-standardised rates Open a glossary item (AS rates) are significantly lower in England and Scotland compared with Wales, and significantly lower in Scotland compared with England. For females, the rates are significantly higher in England compared with Scotland.[1-4]

Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (C92.0, C92.4, C92.5, C92.6, C92.8 C93.0, C94.0, C94.2), Number of New Cases, Crude and European Age-Standardised (AS) Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2014

England Wales Scotland Northern Ireland UK
Male Cases 1,468 129 116 45 1,758
Crude Rate 5.5 8.5 4.5 5.0 5.5
AS Rate 6.5 9.3 5.2 6.5 6.6
AS Rate - 95% LCL 6.2 7.7 4.2 4.6 6.3
AS Rate - 95% UCL 6.9 10.9 6.1 8.5 6.9
Female Cases 1,122 72 86 34 1,314
Crude Rate 4.1 4.6 3.1 3.6 4.0
AS Rate 4.1 4.4 3.1 4.0 4.1
AS Rate - 95% LCL 3.9 3.4 2.4 2.7 3.8
AS Rate - 95% UCL 4.4 5.4 3.7 5.4 4.3
Persons Cases 2,590 201 202 79 3,072
Crude Rate 4.8 6.5 3.8 4.3 4.8
AS Rate 5.2 6.5 4.0 5.1 5.2
AS Rate - 95% LCL 5.0 5.6 3.5 4.0 5.0
AS Rate - 95% UCL 5.4 7.4 4.6 6.2 5.3

95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and upper confidence limits Open a glossary item around the AS rate Open a glossary item

For acute myeloid leukaemia, there are few established risk factors therefore differences between countries largely reflect differences in diagnosis and data recording

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/

About this data

Data is for: UK, 2014, ICD-10 C92.0, C92.4, C92.5, C92.6, C92.8, C93.0, C94.0, C94.2

Last reviewed:

Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) incidence is strongly related to age, with the highest incidence rates being in older males and females. In the UK in 2012-2014, on average each year almost 6 in 10 (55%) cases were diagnosed in people aged 70 and over.[1-4]

Age-specific incidence rates rise gradually from around age 40-44 and more steeply from around age 60-64, with the highest rates in the 85-89 age group in males, and the 90+ age group in females. Incidence rates are higher for males than for females at ages 55-59 and over, with no significant differences in the other age groups. This gap is widest at age 80-84, when the male:female incidence ratio of age-specific rates (to account for the different proportions of males to females in each age group) is around 20:10.[1-4]

Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (C92.0, C92.4, C92.5, C92.6, C92.8 C93.0, C94.0, C94.2), Average Number of New Cases per Year and Age-specific Incidence Rates, UK, 2012-2014

For acute myeloid leukaemia, like most cancer types, incidence increases with age. This largely reflects cell DNA damage accumulating over time. Damage can result from biological processes or from exposure to risk factors. A drop or plateau in incidence in the oldest age groups often indicates reduced diagnostic activity perhaps due to general ill health.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2012-2014, ICD-10 C92.0, C92.4, C92.5, C92.6, C92.8, C93.0, C94.0, C94.2

Last reviewed:

Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) incidence rates have increased by 73% in Great Britain since the late 1970s.[1-3] The increase is similar for males and females, and for both sexes rates have stabilised in recent years.

For males, European age-standardised Open a glossary item (AS) incidence rates increased by 66% between 1979-1981 and 2003-2005, and have since remained stable – leaving rates in 2011-2013 73% higher compared with 1979-1981. For females, rates increased by 58% between 1979-1981 and 2003-2005, and have since remained stable – leaving rates in 2011-2013 61% higher compared with 1979-1981.

Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (C92.0, C92.4, C92.5, C92.6, C92.8, C93.0, C94.0, C94.2), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, Great Britain, 1979-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

Over the last decade in the UK (between 2002-2004 and 2011-2013), AML AS incidence rates have increased by 7%, though this includes an increase in males (8%) and stable rates in females.[1-4]

Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (C92.0, C92.4, C92.5, C92.6, C92.8, C93.0, C94.0, C94.2), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, UK, 1993-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

AML incidence trends probably reflect improvements in diagnostic techniques and data registration.[5,6]

AML incidence rates have increased overall for most of the age groups in Great Britain since the late 1970s.[1-3] The largest increase has been in people aged 80+, with European AS incidence rates doubling (111% increase) between 1979-1981 and 2011-2013. The smallest increase has been in people aged 50-59, with rates rising by 31% between 1979-1981 and 2011-2013. In people aged 25-49, rates remained stable between 1979-1981 and 2011-2013.

Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (C92.0, C92.4, C92.5, C92.6, C92.8, C93.0, C94.0, C94.2), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, by Age, Great Britain, 1979-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, February 2015. Similar data can be found here:http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, March 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/
  5. Northern and Yorkshire Cancer Registry and Information Service. Haematological malignancies in England. Cancers Diagnosed 2001-2008. London: NCIN; 2013.
  6. National Cancer Data Repository (NCDR). Blood Cancers Data Quality Report 2010. London:NCIN.
Last reviewed:

The lifetime risk of developing acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is around 1 in 200 for men and around 1 in 255 for women, in 2012 in the UK.[1]

The lifetime risk for AML has been calculated on the assumption that the possibility of having more than one diagnosis of AML over the course of a lifetime is very low (‘Current Probability’ method).[2]

References

  1. Lifetime risk estimates calculated by the Statistical Information Team at Cancer Research UK. Based on data provided by the Office of National Statistics, ISD Scotland, the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit and the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry, on request, December 2013 to July 2014.
  2. Esteve J, Benhamou E and Raymond L. Descriptive epidemiology. IARC Scientific Publications No.128, Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer, pp 67-68 1994.
Last reviewed:

There is evidence for a small association between acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) incidence and deprivation for males in England, but there is no evidence for an association for females.[1]  England-wide data for 2006-2010 show European age-standardised Open a glossary item incidence rates are 15% higher for males living in the most deprived areas compared with the least deprived, but for females the rates are similar for those living in the least and most deprived areas.[1]

Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (C920, C924, C925, C930, C940, C942), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates by Deprivation Quintile, England, 2006-2010

For males diagnosed with acute myeloid leukaemia the deprivation gradient has gone from having higher incidence rates in the less deprived in 1996-2000 to higher incidence rates in the more deprived in 2006-2010. The estimated deprivation gradient in acute myeloid leukaemia, between females living in the most and least deprived areas in England has not changes in the period 1996-2010.

It has been estimated that there would have been around 90 fewer cancer cases each year in England during 2006-2010 if all people experienced the same incidence rates as the least deprived.[1]

Last reviewed:

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