Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) incidence statistics

Cases

New cases of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, 2014, UK

 

Proportion of all cases

Percentage acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is of total cancer cases, 2014, UK

 

Age

Peak rate of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cases, 2012-2014, UK

Trend over time

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia incidence rates have remained stable since the early 1990s, UK

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) accounts for less than 1% of all new cancer cases in the UK, and 8% of all leukaemia subtypes combined (2014).[1-4]

In 2014, there were 758 new cases of ALL in the UK: 449 (59%) in males and 309 (41%) in females, giving a male:female ratio of around 15:10.[1-4] The crude incidence rate shows that there is around 1 new ALL case for every 100,000 males in the UK and less than 1 for every 100,000 females.

The European age-standardised incidence rates (AS rates) do not differ significantly between the constituent countries of the UK for either sex.[1-4]

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (C91.0), Number of New Cases, Crude and European Age-Standardised (AS) Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2014

England Wales Scotland Northern Ireland UK
Male Cases 390 16 33 10 449
Crude Rate 1.5 1.1 1.3 1.1 1.4
AS Rate 1.3 1.0 1.2 1.0 1.3
AS Rate - 95% LCL 1.2 0.5 0.8 0.4 1.2
AS Rate - 95% UCL 1.5 1.5 1.7 1.7 1.4
Female Cases 264 13 23 9 309
Crude Rate 1.0 0.8 0.8 1.0 0.9
AS Rate 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9
AS Rate - 95% LCL 0.8 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.8
AS Rate - 95% UCL 1.0 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.0
Persons Cases 654 29 56 19 758
Crude Rate 1.2 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.2
AS Rate 1.1 0.9 1.0 0.9 1.1
AS Rate - 95% LCL 1.0 0.6 0.8 0.5 1.0
AS Rate - 95% UCL 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.2

95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and upper confidence limits around the AS Rate

For ALL, there are few established risk factors therefore differences between countries largely reflect differences in diagnosis and data recording

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/

About this data

Data is for: UK, 2014, ICD-10 C91.0

Last reviewed:

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) incidence is strongly related to age, with the highest incidence rates being in children, teenagers and young adults – the converse pattern to most cancers. In the UK in 2012-2014, on average each year more than half (53%) of cases were diagnosed in children aged 10 and over.[1-4]

Age-specific incidence rates are highest in infants aged 0-4 and drop sharply through childhood, adolescence and young adulthood, reaching their lowest point at age 30-34 in males and 35-39 in females, and increasing slightly thereafter. Incidence rates are significantly higher for males than for females in those aged between 10-14 and 25-29 and this gap is widest at the ages of 25 to 29, when the male:female ratio of age-specific incidence rates (to account for the different proportions of males to females in each age group) is around 21:10.[1-4]

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (C91.0), Average Number of New Cases per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates, UK, 2012-2014

For acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, like most cancer types, incidence increases with age. This largely reflects cell DNA damage accumulating over time. Damage can result from biological processes or from exposure to risk factors. A drop or plateau in incidence in the oldest age groups often indicates reduced diagnostic activity perhaps due to general ill health.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.

About this data

Data is for UK, 2012-2014, ICD-10 C91.0

Last reviewed:

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) incidence rates have remained stable overall in the UK since the early-1990s.[1-3] This pattern is similar in both males and females. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia incidence rates increased by 12% (persons) in Great Britain between 1979-1981 and 1991-1993.[1-3]

For males, European age-standardised (AS) incidence rates remained stable between 1993-1995 and 2012-2014. For females, rates also remained stable in this period.

Over the last decade in the UK (between 2003-2005 and 2012-2014), ALL AS incidence rates have remained stable in the UK, for males and females combined and separately.[1-4]

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (C91.0), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, UK, 1993-2014

ALL incidence rates have remained stable overall for all of the broad age groups in the UK since the early 1990s.[1-3]

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (C91.0), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, by Age, UK, 1993-2014​

For acute lymphoblastic leukaemia there are few established risk factors, therefore increasing incidence in the 1980s and 1990s may largely reflect improvements in diagnosis and data recording.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/cancerregistrationstatisticsengland/previousReleases
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit, Health Intelligence Division, Public Health Wales on request, June 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, May 2016. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/

About this data

Data is for UK, 1993-2014, ICD-10 C91.0

Last reviewed:

The lifetime risk of developing acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is around 1 in 1,015 for men and around 1 in 1,340 for women, in 2012 in the UK.[1]

The lifetime risk for ALL has been calculated on the assumption that the possibility of having more than one diagnosis of ALL over the course of a lifetime is very low (‘Current Probability’ method).[2]

References

  1. Lifetime risk estimates calculated by the Statistical Information Team at Cancer Research UK. Based on data provided by the Office of National Statistics, ISD Scotland, the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit and the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry, on request, December 2013 to July 2014.
  2. Esteve J, Benhamou E and Raymond L. Descriptive epidemiology. IARC Scientific Publications No.128, Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer, pp 67-68 1994.
Last reviewed:

There is evidence for a small association between acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) incidence and deprivation for males in England, making this one of the few cancers where incidence rates are lower for more deprived males. There is no evidence for an association between the incidence of ALL and deprivation for females.[1]

England-wide data for 2006-2010 show European age-standardised incidence rates are 14% lower for males living in the most deprived areas compared with the least deprived, but for females the rates are similar for those living in the least and most deprived areas.[1]

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia (C910), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates by Deprivation Quintile, England, 2006-2010

For males diagnosed with acute lymphatic leukaemia the deprivation gradient has gone from having higher incidence in the more deprived in 1996-2000 to having higher incidence rates in the less deprived in 2006-2010. The estimated deprivation gradient  in acute lymphatic leukemia incidence for females living in the most and least deprived areas in England has not changed in the period 1996-2020.

Last reviewed:

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