There are waiting time targets for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer in the different UK nations. The aim for all healthcare systems within the UK is to make sure that you have a diagnosis and start treatment as soon as possible.
Having to wait
Getting a diagnosis of cancer can sometimes take a while. Sometimes it might feel that you are waiting too long. Usually everyone will have to wait for appointments, tests and results. Only then can you start treatment. This can be frustrating and difficult to cope with.
You may begin to worry that the cancer will spread during this time. But we know that most cancers usually grow slowly. So waiting a few weeks for a test or treatment does not usually affect how well the treatment works.
The different UK nations have their own targets around:
- referral for suspected cancer
- waiting times to a diagnosis
- waiting times to start treatment
Urgent suspected cancer referral
Your GP, dentist, optometrist (eye doctor) or nurse will arrange your referral to see a hospital doctor (specialist), or to have tests. They should tell you if this is an urgent suspected cancer referral. An urgent referral can be worrying. But remember that more than 9 in every 10 people (more than 90%) referred this way will not have a diagnosis of cancer.
In England, an urgent referral means that you should see a specialist within 2 weeks. As part of a wider NHS England plan, this 2 week timeframe will eventually be removed as a target. But your GP will still refer you urgently if they think you might have cancer. This practice won't change. You will still see a specialist or have tests as soon as possible.
In Northern Ireland, the 2 week wait only applies for symptoms of suspected breast cancer.
Scotland, Wales and (in general) Northern Ireland don't have the 2 week time frame to see a specialist. But wherever you live, a specialist will see you as soon as possible.
Waiting for tests
A specialist may need to do a variety of tests to decide on a diagnosis. Sometimes you might have these tests before you see the specialist. You might have a sample (
If they diagnose cancer, you may then need further tests. This is to get as much information about the cancer as possible.
For example, your specialist might arrange a scan such as a CT scan, MRI scan or PET scan. This helps them to work out the stage of the cancer. The stage of the cancer refers to the size and whether it has spread. This helps your healthcare team to decide which treatment is best for you.
Unfortunately, you might have to wait for an appointment for some of these tests. This could be because of the high number of people needing certain scans. You might have it sooner if the specialist puts urgent on the test request form.
Some types of specialised tests are only available in larger hospitals. So you might need to go to another hospital for your tests, which can increase the length of time you wait.
Waiting for scan results
A specialist doctor needs to examine your scans and write a report. If you have a biopsy, the tissue is sent to a laboratory. A
A team of doctors and other professionals will meet to discuss your diagnosis and the best treatment for you. They are called a multidisciplinary team (MDT). Your cancer specialist will then explain the results to you. It usually takes a couple of weeks to get your results.
Waiting for results can make you anxious. Ask your specialist to give you a rough idea of how long your test results are likely to take. You can ring their secretary or your specialist nurse if you have not heard anything after a couple of weeks.
Waiting for a diagnosis
NHS England has introduced a new target called the Faster Diagnosis Standard (FDS). The target is that you should not wait more than 28 days from referral to finding out whether you have cancer or not. This is part of a wider NHS England plan to focus more on the speed that someone gets their results and diagnosis.
The FDS applies to those people who are referred:
- by their GP for suspected cancer
- by their GP with breast symptoms where cancer is not suspected
- following an abnormal screening result from a cancer screening test
The 3 screening programmes in England are:
- breast cancer
- bowel cancer
- cervical screening
Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales
Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales do not have a Faster Diagnosis Standard target.
Waiting to start treatment
There are waiting time targets to start treatment.
In England, Scotland and Northern Ireland the current targets are:
- no more than 2 months (62 days) wait between the date the hospital receives an urgent suspected cancer referral and the start of treatment
- no more than 31 days wait between the meeting at which you and your doctor agree the treatment plan and the start of treatment
In May 2019 Wales introduced the Suspected Cancer Pathway. This combines all urgent and non urgent referrals into one target time of 62 days or less. This means, that when cancer is first suspected, everyone should have a confirmed diagnosis and start treatment within 62 days. The time that cancer is first suspected could be for example:
- when you first see your GP and they refer you to a specialist or to have tests
- when you have an abnormal result as part of a screening appointment
- when you are in hospital in a ward or in the Accident & Emergency (A&E) department
If your cancer comes back
NHS England has a waiting time target for cancer that has come back (a recurrence). They say that you should start treatment within 31 days. This time starts from the meeting in which you and your doctor have agreed your treatment plan.
Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have not set this target. But you will start treatment as soon as possible.
A new primary cancer
In some situations, your doctor may diagnose a new primary cancer instead of a recurrence. If so, you should wait no more than 2 months (62 days) to start treatment. This time starts on the date that the hospital has received an urgent suspected cancer referral.
You might have to wait longer if you need extra tests to diagnose your cancer. Waiting times can vary depending on the type of cancer and the type of treatment you are going to have.
Tell your specialist or nurse if you worry about waiting for treatment. They will understand that you find it hard to wait a few weeks for treatment. They will be able to reassure you. Usually, waiting should not affect how well your treatment works.