Your risk of developing cancer depends on many things including age, genetics, lifestyle and environmental factors. Anything that can increase your risk of cancer is called a risk factor.
Around 10,300 people in the UK get pancreatic cancer each year. It is the 10th most common cancer, excluding non melanoma skin cancer.
Doctors don’t know what causes most pancreatic cancers. But there are some factors that may increase your risk of developing it. Having any of these risk factors does not mean that you will definitely develop cancer.
Pancreatic cancer is more common in older people. Almost half of all new cases are diagnosed in people aged 75 and over. Pancreatic cancer is uncommon in people under 40 years old.
Smoking and smokeless tobacco
Around 20 out of 100 cases of pancreatic cancer in the UK (around 20%) are caused by smoking. Cigarettes, cigars, pipes and chewing tobacco all increase pancreatic cancer risk.
Studies have given mixed results but using Scandinavian snus (a type of smokeless tobacco popular in Norway and Sweden) could increase the risk of pancreatic cancer.
The best way for people who smoke to reduce their risk of cancer and improve their overall health, is to stop smoking completely. The risk of pancreatic cancer in people who stopped smoking 20 years ago is the same as for people who have never smoked.
Being overweight or obese
More than 10 in 100 pancreatic cancers in the UK (more than10%) are linked to being overweight or obese. This increase in risk could be because the pancreas makes more insulin in overweight people. But we need more research to know for sure.
Family cancer syndromes and genetic factors
Sometimes pancreatic cancer is found to run in families. But only between 5 and 10 in 100 people (5 to 10%) diagnosed with pancreatic cancer have a family history of it.
You have an increased risk if you have a
Pancreatic cancer can be part of a family cancer syndrome, where an inherited family gene causes a number of different cancers to develop within the members of one family.
Your risk of pancreatic cancer is higher if you carry the faulty breast cancer gene BRCA2. There is also some evidence that having a BRCA1 gene fault could increase your risk of pancreatic cancer. But the evidence is less strong.
The pancreatic cancer risk is higher in people who have:
- Peutz-Jeghers syndrome
- Familial atypical multiple mole melanoma syndrome (FAMMM)
- Lynch syndrome/hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC)
You often know about these conditions already if one runs in your family.
Other medical conditions
The risk of pancreatic cancer is increased if you have a history of the following:
Long term inflammation of the pancreas
Long term inflammation of the pancreas is called chronic pancreatitis. It is most often caused by long term drinking of alcohol. There is a link between having chronic pancreatitis and developing pancreatic cancer, but isn't responsible for most cases.
Pancreatitis can also run in families (hereditary pancreatitis). It is a rare condition, causing inflammation of the pancreas. It accounts for about 1 in 100 cases (about 1%) of pancreatitis. A faulty gene that you inherit from one parent causes it.
People with hereditary pancreatitis have a higher risk of developing pancreatic cancer compared to the rest of the population.
Diabetes is a disease of the pancreatic cells that normally make insulin. People with diabetes have an increased risk of pancreatic cancer.
It’s possible that a growing cancer actually causes some cases of diabetes, rather than diabetes causing cancer.
Gallstones are small hard lumps (usually of cholesterol) that form in the gallbladder. People with gallstones have an increased risk of pancreatic cancer compared to those without gallstones.
This may be because gallstones can cause chronic pancreatitis, which is another risk factor for pancreatic cancer. The increase in risk may only be for a short time after the diagnosis of gallstones. This may be due to the increased number of tests people have at this time.
Women with metabolic syndrome have an increased risk of pancreatic cancer compared with the general population. Metabolic syndrome is a group of symptoms including:
- having extra weight around the waist
- using insulin less effectively than normal
- high blood pressure
- high levels of fat in the blood
Pancreatic cancer is more common in people with chronic pancreatitis. About 70 out of 100 cases of chronic pancreatitis (about 70%) are due to long term heavy drinking.
Some research suggests there may be a link between heavy drinkers and risk of pancreatic cancer. The results showed the risk is higher in people who drink more than 6 units of alcohol a day compared to those who drink less than 6 units.
High energy radiation (ionising radiation)
Exposure to high energy radiation (x-rays or gamma rays) is linked to an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. This could be through medical tests such as x-rays and CT scans, or having radiotherapy for cancer.
The health risks of radiation from tests such as x-rays are generally low and it is important you have these tests to get the right diagnosis and treatment. Doctors keep your exposure to radiation as low as possible and only do them when they are necessary.
Although having radiotherapy in the past has been linked with an increased risk of cancer, the risk is balanced by the need to treat the original cancer.
There is some evidence of a link between red meat and an increased risk of pancreatic cancer.
Currently, this increase in risk of pancreatic cancer seems to just be in men. This might be because women generally eat less red meat than men.
Other possible causes
Stories about potential causes are often in the media and it isn’t always clear which ideas are supported by evidence. There might be things you have heard of that we haven’t included here. This is because either there is no evidence about them or it is less clear.