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Grades of small bowel neuroendocrine tumours

The grade of a small bowel NET tells you how much the cancer cells look like normal cells under the microscope. It gives your doctor an idea of how the tumour might behave and whether it is likely to spread.

There are different ways to grade NETs. In the UK, doctors use a system created by the World Health Organisation (WHO). The WHO grading system divides small bowel NETs into 3 groups:

  • grade 1 (NET G1 or WHO 1)
  • grade 2 (NET G2 or WHO 2)
  • grade 3 (NEC G3 or WHO 3)

Grade 1

The cells look very like normal cells. Tumours are usually slow growing and less likely to spread. They are also called low grade or well differentiated tumours.

Grade 2

The cells look less like normal cells and are more likely to grow and spread. They are also called moderately differentiated tumours.

Grade 3

The cells look very abnormal. They tend to grow quickly and are more likely to spread.

Grade 3 is also called poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC).

Ki–67 index test

The Ki-67 or mitotic index are ways of describing how many cells are dividing. A specialist doctor (pathologist) counts the number of NET cells that have started to divide into 2 new cells (mitoses) under a microscope. And a special stain measures the Ki-67 value.

Diagram of Ki 67 index for neuroendocrine tumours

Your doctor might tell you the number of cells that are dividing (number of mitoses), or you may see this on your pathology report. This helps your doctor decide which treatment you need.

Ki-67 index of 2% or lower

A Ki-67 index of 2% or lower means that fewer than 2 in every 100 cells (2%) are dividing. This is a grade 1 NET (NET G1).

Ki-67 index between 3% and 20%

This means that between 3 and 20 cells in every 100 cells (3% and 20%) are dividing. This is a grade 2 NET (NET G2).

Ki-67 index higher than 20%

A Ki-67 index of more than 20% means that more than 2 in every 10 cells (20%) are dividing. This is a grade 3 neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC G3). They often grow and spread quickly.
 

Treatment

The grade of your cancer helps your doctor decide which treatment you need. Treatment also depends on:

  • where the tumour is and whether it has spread
  • other health conditions you may have
Last reviewed: 
02 Oct 2018
  • WHO classification of tumours of the digestive system
    FT Bosman, F Carneiro and RH Hruban and others
    IARC Press, Lyon, 2010

  • ENETS Consensus Guidelines Update for Neuroendocrine Neoplasms of the Jejunum and Ileum
    B Niederle and others
    Neuroendocrinology, 2016
    Volume 103

  • Guidelines for the management of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine (including carcinoid) tumours (NETs)
    JK Ramage and others
    Gut, 2012
    Volume 61

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