What is lymphoedema?

Lymphoedema means a build up of lymph fluid that causes swelling in a part of the body. It can develop if there are problems with the lymphatic system. It's pronounced lim-fo-dee-ma.

Lymph fluid

Lymph fluid is in all body tissues. It comes from the tiny blood vessels into the body tissues. Usually, it drains back into the bloodstream through channels called lymph vessels. These are part of the lymphatic system.

A build up of lymph fluid in an area of the body can happen if lymph drainage channels or lymph nodes are blocked, removed or damaged. This causes swelling called lymphoedema.

In some people, lympohedema can be due to the cancer. Cancer growing near lymph nodes or lymph vessels can block the flow of lymph fluid. In others, treatments, such as surgery or radiotherapy to the lymph nodes, can cause lymphoedema.

Lymphoedema mostly affects the arms or legs. But it can develop in other body areas such as the:

  • chest or back
  • abdomen (tummy area)
  • genitals (areas affected include the vagina and the vulva in women and in men the penis and the testicles)
  • head, neck, or face
  • breast
  • armpit
  • pelvic area (lower tummy)

It is a long-term (chronic) condition. It can’t be cured, but it can usually be well controlled.

What is the lymphatic system?

The lymphatic system is a system of drainage tubes and lymph nodes that runs throughout the body. Lymph nodes are also known as lymph glands.

The tubes are called lymph vessels or lymphatic vessels. They start as tiny tubes in the body tissues and join up to form bigger lymph vessels in the chest and abdomen.

Along the lymph vessels are small bean shaped lymph nodes. The ones you're most likely to know about are under your arm, in your neck and in your groin. You may be able to feel these. But there are also nodes in other areas including your chest, abdomen and pelvis.

The lymphatic system also includes body organs such as the:

  • spleen
  • thymus
  • tonsils
  • adenoids
Diagram of the lymphatic system

How does the lymphatic system work?

The lymphatic system carries straw coloured fluid called lymph. The lymph drains out from the small blood vessels (capillaries) into the body tissues. It is a one-way drainage system.

Proteins can also move out of the capillaries and the lymph carries them back to the bloodstream. It also drains waste and harmful substances away from body tissues. These include bacteria, viruses and old cells.

When muscles near the lymph vessels contract, they press on the lymph vessels. This helps to push the fluid through the lymphatic system. Some of the larger lymphatic vessels have valves so that the lymph can only flow one way.

Lymph nodes filter the lymph fluid. They also make and store white blood cells that circulate around the body. White blood cells help fight infections.

The lymph vessels join up into 2 main lymphatic ducts. These are both in the chest. They are:

  • the thoracic duct
  • the right lymphatic duct

The thoracic duct

The thoracic duct drains lymph fluid from:

  • both legs
  • the left half of the chest (thorax)
  • the pelvis and abdomen
  • the head and neck
  • the left arm

The right lymphatic duct

The right lymphatic duct drains fluid from:

  • the right half of the chest (thorax)
  • the head and neck
  • the right arm
Diagram showing the parts of the body the lymphatic and thoracic ducts drain

These main ducts then drain into the large blood vessels in the neck, carrying the waste products from the body into the blood. The kidneys filter the blood and get rid of the waste products in the urine.

Knowing how lymph fluid drains helps us to understand how lymphoedema treatment works.

Here is a short video explaining how the lymphatic system works. 

  • Ross and Wilson Anatomy and Physiology in Health and Illness (13th edition)    
    A Waugh and A Grant
    Elsevier, 2018

  • Commissioning Guidance for Lymphoedema Services for Adults in the United Kingdom

    The National Lymphoedema Partnership, 2019.

  • Diagnosis, treatment, and Quality of Life in Patients with cancer-related lymphedema

    I Kalemikerakis and others

    JBUON Open Access Journal aimed at the rapid diffusion of scientific knowledge in Oncology.2021. Volume 26, Issue 5, Pages 1735-1741

Last reviewed: 
27 Apr 2023
Next review due: 
27 Apr 2026

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