Symptoms of brain tumours in children

Brain tumours cause symptoms because they:

  • take up space inside the skull when they grow
  • cause specific symptoms due to the position of the tumour in the brain
Brain tumour symptoms can be very similar to those of childhood illnesses. And they vary between children. See your GP if your child has any symptoms of a brain tumour to get them checked over. Remember the symptoms we list here are not usually cancer.

These symptoms can be different depending on your child’s age and development. Find out about the possible symptoms of brain tumours in infants, children and teenagers below.


Feeling or being sick

Your child might be persistently feeling sick (nausea) or being sick (vomiting). Or you might notice they are vomiting most days.  Early morning vomiting is common.


Your child might have a headache that doesn’t go away or keeps coming back.

Seizure (fit)

Your child might have seizures (fit). This is a seizure that is not related to a high temperature in babies.

Problems with eyes or vision

Your child might have:

  • abnormal eye movements
  • a squint, when both eyes don’t look in the same direction
  • blurred or double vision

Babies head circumference getting bigger

Head circumference is the measurement around your baby’s head. All babies have their heads measured when they are born and at their routine check at 6 weeks. They might have jumped a centile compared to their length and weight.

Make sure you take your red book to any appointments, so your baby’s health professional can record the measurements so that they can compare them.

Strength, balance and coordination problems

This is usually a loss of skills they have already learnt including balance and sitting up. They might be having problems with their coordination or strength.

Walking might become more difficult, or look different, than before.

Posture problems

Babies and children might have a stiff neck which means they can’t turn as much as usual. They might also be holding their neck in a twisted position, where their chin is turned to the side.

Behaviour changes

You might notice a change in their behaviour. In babies and young children, they might be sleeping a lot and have less energy than usual.

Older children and teenagers might also be very tired or have extreme mood changes. They might be confused.

Puberty changes

Your teenager might have delayed puberty. The start of puberty for girls is usually the development of their breasts and for boys it is when the testicles get bigger.

Delayed puberty, for girls, means no sign of puberty by the age of 13 or no periods by the age of 16. For boys, it means no sign of puberty by 14.

Your teenager might start puberty, then stop. Doctors call this arrested puberty. Girls might start their periods, but they stop again.


HeadSmart aim to raise awareness of the common signs and symptoms of brain tumours in children and teenagers by providing information for:

  • parents
  • the public
  • health professionals

They have more in depth information about the symptoms of brain tumours.

Seeing your GP

Having one of these symptoms doesn’t mean your child has a brain tumour. They can be symptoms of other things. But you should get any changes checked out by their GP.

Referral to a specialist

There are guidelines to help GPs know when to refer a child to a specialist. These guidelines are very clear that that the GP should take the parent or carers concern about their child into account when deciding about a specialist referral.

Your GP should consider referring your child to a specialist within 48 hours if they have new problems with:

  • movements
  • head tilt - your child might be holding their head in an abnormal way
  • strength
  • balance
  • coordination
  • confusion
  • tiredness

And your child’s GP thinks they might have a new problem with their brain or central nervous system.

This guidance is for all children and young people up to their 25th birthday.

Last reviewed: 
13 Mar 2019
  • Suspected cancer: recognition and referral
    National Institute of Health and Care Excellence, June 2015

  • The brain pathways guideline: A guideline to assist healthcare professionals in the assessment of children who may have a brain tumour (Version 2)
    Children’s Brain Tumour Research Centre, 2017

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