Coronavirus and cancer

We know it’s a worrying time for people with cancer, we have information to help. If you have symptoms of cancer contact your doctor.

Read our information about coronavirus and cancer

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Style guide for health and patient information pages

Read the style guide for Cancer Research UK's pages on health information and patient information.

About our information

Cancer Research UK’s health and patient information aims to provide understandable, accurate, comprehensive and up-to-date information about cancer, treatments and support services in the UK.

Our information aims to:

  • help people reduce their risk of cancer and adopt a healthy lifestyle
  • help people understand their situation
  • know how cancer and treatments may affect them
  • explain the choices available to them
  • enable them to make decisions where necessary

Our readers should feel informed, supported and empowered.

Our readers

For health information the primary audience is the general public.

For patient information the primary audience is people affected by cancer and their relatives and friends. This includes people waiting to be diagnosed, having cancer tests, and people undergoing treatment and coping with side effects. It also includes survivorship and end of life issues.

Although the information covers sometimes very complex, medical situations it must be clear, concise and understandable to people with low literacy levels.

Sensitivity

Many of the people coming to our web pages or reading our printed information are in difficult or frightening situations: for example, they might be worried that they have cancer, or may be having treatments and coping with severe side effects. They may be worried about their prognosis. Our information sensitively acknowledges the feelings and emotions that cancer and its treatment cause.

Meeting user and business needs

Throughout our information we demonstrate our involvement in research and raise awareness of our role in improving diagnosis, treatment and survival for people with cancer.

When planning our writing we consider:

  • what do we want the reader to know (facts)?
  • how do we want them to feel (eg informed, reassured)?
  • which action do we want them to take (such as read the whole page, go on to read another page, or go to their doctor)?

Patient stories

We include patient stories to give a human interest.

Inclusive language

We use person-centred language and aim to be as inclusive and sensitive as possible.

Age

Avoid describing age groups that suggest they are less able. Be sensitive to different age groups, using terms that they would use themselves.

UseInstead of
older peoplethe elderly
old people

Disability or condition

Describe a person first of all as an individual, followed by their disability or condition. Only include if it is necessary for the information.

UseInstead of
person with a disabilitydisabled person
person with cancercancer patient
person with diabetesdiabetic person
person with a mental health condition or problemmentally ill

Nationality, race, ethnicity and religion

Only refer to nationality, race, ethnicity and religion when it is relevant to the information. For example, ‘Prostate cancer is more common in black-African men than white men. It is least common in Asian men’. 

Sex, gender and sexual orientation

Use gender neutral language wherever possible.

UseInstead of
peoplemen, women
they, them, name of person if knownhe, she
theirhis, her
parents, carer, guardianmother, father, mum, dad
partner, carerboyfriend, girlfriend, husband, wife
child, childrenson, daughter

Avoid gender specific language when describing a profession or job

For example, ‘Ask if there is a specialist nurse and if you can speak to them [not her]’. Or ‘Contact your doctor and tell them [not him] what is wrong’.

There may be exceptions to this. For example, ‘You can ask to see a female doctor if you want to’.

Sexual orientation

Sexual orientation describes who a person is attracted to and has feelings for romantically, physically and emotionally.

  • Use ‘sexual orientation’, not ‘sexual preference’.
  • Avoid language that assumes all or most people are heterosexual.

Clarity

To maintain clarity, our information will at times refer to male, female, men and women. This is to help people of all literacy levels understand our information. For example, this might be when describing parts of the body, who the cancer affects and the results of studies and trials.

We acknowledge that this information also applies to some people who are trans or non-binary.

Heterosexual

Refers to a man who has a romantic and/or sexual orientation towards women or to a woman who has a romantic and/or sexual orientation towards men.

Trans

An umbrella term to describe people whose gender is not the same as, or does not sit comfortably with, the sex they were assigned at birth.

Transgender man

A term used to describe someone who is assigned female at birth but identifies and lives as a man.

Transgender woman

A term used to describe someone who is assigned male at birth but identifies and lives as a woman.

Non-binary

An umbrella term for people whose gender identity doesn’t sit comfortably with ‘man’ or ‘woman’.

The meaning of these terms is courtesy of the Stonewall website,  accessed August 2019.

Plain English

All our information complies with plain English guidance produced by the Plain English Campaign:

Style points

When writing we follow these guiding principles:

  • Write in plain English – grade 5 or lower in Hemingway app.
  • Be clear and concise.
  • Use the active voice rather than passive – eg ‘Your nurse will give you the injection’ rather than ‘You will be given the injection by the nurse’.
  • Keep the information short and simple and avoid unnecessary words.
  • Have an average sentence length of 16 words or under (from the Fleisch readability guidance).
  • Create accessible and inclusive content.
  • Use words that are appropriate and understandable for the reader.
  • Avoid jargon: use simple descriptions such as ‘an endoscope is a flexible tube that shows the lining of your food pipe’.
  • If including technical terms use the plain English term first, followed by the technical term in brackets – eg difficulty swallowing (dysphagia).
  • Use contractions (eg you’re or can’t) but don’t overuse and avoid with sensitive information such as ‘No one can tell you how long you’ll live’. Using a contraction in this sentence can make it sound flippant.
  • Avoid adverbs, but include them where they are helpful, eg ‘The nurse gently puts the tube into your bladder’.
  • Include clear calls to action (the pink link) where appropriate – eg ‘Find out about possible treatments for your cancer'.
  • Don’t use italics, capitals (in words such as Doctor or Radiographer), underlining or exclamation marks.
  • Generally avoid using bold text unless it is important to emphasise something (eg side effects that need to be reported urgently to a doctor).
  • Avoid saying patient – use the term ‘people with cancer’.
  • Don’t use Oxford commas unless the sentence becomes difficult to understand without them: an Oxford comma is a comma used after the penultimate item in a list of three or more items, before ‘and’ or ‘or’ (eg a meal, salad, and a drink).
  • Use UK English and don’t use Americanisms, including American spellings. Verbs should end in -ise, not -ize eg recognise.
  • Don’t use the Registered trade mark ® or the Trade Mark symbol ™. This affects the user’s flow of reading.
  • Avoid sentence fragments – see http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/fragments.htm
  • Avoid comma splices - see http://www.everywordcounts.co.uk/comma-splice

Tone of voice

Our writing style is authoritative and concise but caring and supportive. It demonstrates that we understand and empathise with the difficulties faced by people affected by cancer. And it gives them confidence that we can help by providing accurate, evidence-based and comprehensive information.

Our tone of voice is human. We write as though we are speaking directly to the reader:

  • Be direct and personal – we use ‘you’ and ‘your’ when appropriate. Be aware of when not to use it: eg ‘Cancer can occur anywhere in your food pipe (oesophagus).’ This should say ‘the food pipe (oesophagus)’.
  • Be sensitive without obscuring the facts.
  • Use an authoritative but friendly style.
  • Write in the present tense – eg ‘You lie down on a treatment couch and the nurse puts a drip into your arm’.
  • We use the same voice across all content but vary our tone for different content types – for example, drug information is very factual but we write more sensitively about coping with side effects, advanced cancer or survival.

Words to avoid (and alternatives)

We use simple words and phrases. Use the simple terms below instead of more complex ones. 

You can see more words and phrases on the plain English Campaign list of alternative words at:: http://www.plainenglish.co.uk/files/alternative.pdf

  • Affected (as in affected lymph nodes) – cancer in one lymph node
  • Aggressive – faster growing
  • Anti coagulant clinic – blood clinic
  • Arise from – start from, or develop from
  • Attend – go to
  • Cosmetic result – appearance after
  • Chemotherapy regimen – chemotherapy drug combination or combination of chemotherapy drugs
  • Decrease / reduce – lower
  • Defined as – means
  • Discuss with – talk to
  • Distinguish – use 'tell the difference between'
  • Experience (as in side effects you may experience) – have
  • How effective it is – how well it works
  • In combination with – with
  • Inform – tell
  • Initial – first
  • In other words – so
  • Insert – put
  • In spite of the fact that – although
  • Lymph nodes affected by cancer – lymph nodes containing cancer cells
  • More effective – works better than
  • Most appropriate – best
  • Occur – happen
  • Positive lymph nodes – lymph nodes containing cancer cells
  • Prior to – before
  • Progress (as in cancer progression) – grows
  • Receive treatment – have treatment
  • Return – come back
  • Requires – needs
  • Sufficient – enough
  • Suspicious (as in cells) – abnormal
  • Tablet form – tablets
  • The patient – ‘People with cancer’ or ‘you'
  • Thereafter – after that
  • Vast majority of – most
  • What is the incidence of – How common is

Detailed style guide - A to Z

Get guidance on specific details of style related to cancer information.

'A' or 'an'. We don't use 'an' before words beginning with 'h', unless the 'h' is silent eg 'a herb' not 'an herb'; 'a hospital', not 'an hospital'.

Abbreviations. We don't generally use abbreviations unless it is detrimental not to, preferring to write in full (apart from eg instead of for example). If we do, we don't use full stops between letters in abbreviations.

Accident and Emergency (A&E) rather than 'Casualty'. Most hospitals now refer to Accident and Emergency (A&E) or Emergency departments rather than Casualty.

Acronyms. Don't put full stops between letters eg NICE not N.I.C.E. Spell out in full on first use, with abbreviation in brackets following. Subsequently, use abbreviation. We do not use an apostrophe after a plural abbreviation eg GPs not GP's.

Adviser not advisor (eg financial adviser).

Alveoli are tiny air sacs (not sacks)

Bloodstream is all one word.

Breastfeeding is all one word.

Breastbone is one word.

Cancer Research UK should be written as seen here and never abbreviated, except in internal communications.

Capitals. Don’t overuse. Doctor, nurse etc do not have a capital letter. Professor has a capital if followed by a specific name eg Professor Nick James.

Casualty department – do not use this term: use 'Accident and Emergency' or A&E instead.

Chemoradiotherapy – we use this term rather than chemoradiation. 

Dietician / Dietitian – we use 'dietitian' as this is the accepted version in the UK.

Dropdown – all one word (as in dropdown menu).

Drug names. Brand names always take a capital letter but generic names don't, eg Panadol and paracetamol. For drugs yet to be named eg ABC-1234, use a hyphen as easier to read while making sure the two 'parts' of the name are connected. For drug combinations use the most commonly used term in hospitals. Add other options in brackets in the title or content. We don’t use the registered trade mark symbol when mentioning brand names as it interferes with the flow of reading.

Examples. We tend not to use 'eg'. The term 'eg', although common, makes reading difficult for some people. Instead we use 'such as' or 'for example', whichever works best in the specific context.

For a comparison, use 'such as' not 'like'. Like means 'similar to'. It does not mean ‘the ‘same as', or 'for example'. So, 'you might have a different chemotherapy drug, such as epirubicin'.

Factsheet is all one word.

Fewer – see Quantity.

Follow up. Refers to appointments after treatment has finished. Can also be called check ups.

Food pipe is now our accepted colloquialism for oesophagus. Younger people are not familiar with 'gullet'. Also include oesophagus for clarity.

Gay – use this term and not homosexual.

Gallbladder is one word.

Gene names – always use standard gene names and symbols, which can be found at www.genenames.org. When first used, give the full gene name followed by its symbol in parentheses – eg Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). Generally, gene symbols don’t contain punctuation such as hyphens.

Conventionally, symbols for genes are italicised (e.g. IGF1) whereas symbols for proteins are not (eg IGF1). We don’t use italics and so need to make clear in our writing whether we are talking about a gene or a protein.

Government has a capital G if we are talking about 'the Government' (as in UK).

Graft versus host disease is written either in full (without hyphens) or as an abbreviation GvHD (small v). Use term in full with the abbreviation in parentheses in first instance - graft versus host disease (GvHD) and then GvHD for rest of page.

Hyphens. Accepted site practice is not to use hyphens. They clutter the text and make it more difficult for less able readers. Although we don’t use hyphens, we don't combine the prefix with the rest of the word as this can be even more difficult to read. Eg anti angiogenic, not antiangiogenic; anti inflammatory, not antiinflammatory.

Exceptions to this policy are some medical terms or acronyms that usually include a hyphen, or some terms where removing the hyphen could change or confuse the meaning. 

Medical terms include some cancer types (eg non-Hodgkin lymphoma), drug regimens (eg R-CHOP), and some drugs or drug targets that are acronyms (eg G-CSF and PARP-1). Examples of terms where removing the hyphen could change the meaning include:

  • flu-like
  • skin-like
  • life-like

Human papilloma virus (HPV) - use human papilloma virus instead of human papillomavirus because it's easier to read. The first time it's mentioned on a page include HPV in parentheses, and then refer to just HPV for the rest of the page.

Healthcare team is two words.

Inpatient is one word.

Intra peritoneal (IP) is two words.

Less – see Quantity

Licensed – licence is a noun which means 'a permit to do something' (a driving licence), whereas license is a verb meaning 'give a permit to someone: allow something' (this drug is licensed for the treatment of cancer). In American English, both the noun and the verb are spelled license.

Long term doesn’t have a hyphen.

May or might – use ‘can’ if the option is usually available to most people, eg 'You can take painkillers'. Use ‘may’ if it is more uncertain (eg 'You may be able to have chemotherapy, depending on….').

Generally ‘may’ suggests a greater possibility that something might happen or is possible than ‘might’.

Mouth care is two words.

MRI is an MRI but a magnetic resonance imaging scan. 

Mucous or mucus. Mucus is a noun and mucous is an adjective. Therefore, the stuff that clogs up your nose when you have a cold is mucus. But the membranes that produce mucus are 'mucous membranes'.

Neo adjuvant should be written as two separate words as it makes it easier to read.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is hyphenated.

Numbers. We generally write all numbers in figures. Use your discretion for 'one' and 'two' as these in figures can sometimes look odd.

When writing about proportions use natural frequency (eg 10 out of 100 people) as well as percentages (10%). Many people find this easier to understand. Eg 'More than 10 in 100 people (10%) will have these side effects'.

Don’t have too many numbers in one sentence as this makes information hard to understand.

Avoid starting a sentence with a number.

Percentages are always in figures eg 2%.

Always use commas for numbers over 999 eg 1,000.

Online is one word.

Opening times format: Monday to Friday, 9am to 5pm.

Organisations are singular, not plural. So NICE has...not NICE have.

Outpatient is one word.

Painkillers should be one word.

Percentages. Many people don't understand these. Always express risk as 'x people out of every 100' and then put percentage afterwards in parentheses, eg '80 out of every 100 people (80%).

PET-CT has a hyphen (to avoid confusion with PET and CT).

Pre cancer is two words as it is easier to read.

Post menopausal is two words. 

Pre menopausal is two words.

Peri menopausal is two words.

Pre paid is two words.

Pre surgery is two words.

Philadelphia chromosome should have a capital p and lower case c.

Pronunciation guide. As an aid to our site users, we give phonetic guidance on how to say difficult words, particularly medical ones that may be unfamiliar eg lymphocytic (pronounced lim-fo-sit-ik). Try not to use real words as part of the phonetic spelling as it can confuse eg 'in-juicy-bull' for inducible.

Protein names - always use standard protein names and symbols. When first used, give the full gene name followed by its symbol in parentheses - eg Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). For protein symbols, all letters are in upper case eg IGF1. The Greek alphabet is never used, eg TNFA not TNFα. Generally, protein symbols do not contain punctuation such as hyphens.

Quantity. There are grammatical rules about the use of 'less' and 'fewer'. If it is possible to count what you are describing, use 'fewer'. If not, use 'less'. Eg there are fewer people on the beach, but less sand.

Quotation marks. Always use single quote marks (') and not double quote marks ("). As a general rule though we try to avoid using quotation marks as they clutter the page.

Radio waves is two words (not radiowaves).

Risk communication. All risk information should be presented as natural frequency, eg '1 in X'. We also generally put the percentage in parentheses in an appropriate place in the same sentence. Try to keep figures out of 100 for consistency and avoid confusion, particularly if there are several figures on the same page. For example; 'About 20 out of 100 people (20%) are diagnosed with stage 4 XX cancer' rather than 'About 1 in 5 people (20%) are diagnosed with stage 4 XX cancer'.

Registered trademark - we don’t use the registered trade mark symbol when mentioning drug names as it interferes with the flow of reading.

Sacs (not sacks) when describing certain body parts, eg alveoli are tiny air sacs, or a pericardial sac or scrotal sac.

Short sentences – Have an average sentence length of 16 words or under. We can use conjunctions to start sentences, such as And and But. But this should only be done if there is a genuine need for the 'and' or the 'but', ie the second sentence is dependent on, or an extension of the first. Don't just put them in for the sake of it.  

Short term doesn't have a hyphen.

Synthetic – don't use this term but use 'man made' instead.

Therapy radiographer – we use this term to describe a health professional who is trained to give radiotherapy treatment. Use this term in full in the first instance. For easier reading, we can then refer to radiographer for the rest of the page. 

Trans is a common medical prefix. We write this as two words, without hyphens eg trans rectal, trans dermal.

Transgender is written as one word. Trans people, trans man and trans woman are two separate words.

Trade mark symbol - we don’t use the registered trade mark symbol when mentioning drug names because it interferes with the flow of reading.

Voice box is two words.

x-ray has a hyphen and a lower case x (except at beginning of a sentence).

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