Dairy products, diets high in calcium, and low blood levels of alpha-tocopherol or selenium, are classified by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) as possible causes of prostate cancer, based on limited-suggestive evidence.
WCRF/AICR make no judgment on the association between prostate cancer risk and intake of cereals (grains) and their products, dietary fibre, potatoes, non-starchy vegetables, fruits, pulses (legumes), processed meat, red meat, poultry, fish, eggs, total fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, plant oils, sugar (sucrose), sugary foods and drinks, coffee, tea, alcoholic drinks, carbohydrate, protein, vitamin A, retinol, alpha carotene, lycopene, folate, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E supplements, gamma-tocopherol, multivitamins, selenium supplements, iron, phosphorus, calcium supplements, zinc, physical activity, energy expenditure, vegetarian diets, Seventh-day Adventist diets, individual dietary patterns, body fatness (non-advanced prostate cancer), birth weight, or energy intake, due to limited evidence.
Prostate cancer risk is probably not associated with intake of the following foods and supplements, meta- and pooled analyses or systematic reviews have shown:
- Selenium supplements or blood/toenail levels, (though some evidence of decreased risk).
- Lycopene (dietary from tomatoes, or blood levels).[4-6]
- Calcium (though some evidence of higher risk).
- Red and processed meat.[9-11]
- Vitamin E and retinol (Vitamin A from animal sources) (blood levels and supplement use).[12,13]
- Vitamin D supplements (though some evidence of higher risk with highest versus lowest blood 25(OH)D levels).
- Vitamin C supplements.
- Dairy products (though some evidence of higher risk).[8,16]
- Fish (though some evidence of lower prostate cancer death risk).
- Blood cholesterol levels (though conflicting findings[19-24]).
- Coffee (though some evidence of lower risk).[25-28]
- Green tea (though some evidence of lower risk).[29-31]
- Black tea.[29-31]
- Alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid found in plants).[31-34]