Prostate cancer incidence statistics

Cases

New cases of prostate cancer, 2013, UK

 

Proportion of all cases

Percentage prostate cancer is of total cancer cases, 2013, UK

 

Age

Age that more than half of prostate cancer cases are diagnosed, 2011-2013, UK

 

Trend since 1970s

Prostate cancer incidence rates have increased since the late 1970s, GB

 

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in males in the UK (2013), accounting for 26% of all new cases of cancer in males.[1-4]

In 2013, there were 47,300 new cases of prostate cancer in males in the UK.[1-4] The crude incidence rate Open a glossary item shows that that there are 150 new prostate cancer cases for every 100,000 males in the UK.

The European age-standardised incidence rates Open a glossary item (AS rates) are significantly lower in Scotland and Northern Ireland, compared with England and Wales.[1-4] There are no significant differences between the other constituent countries of the UK.

Prostate Cancer (C61), Number of New Cases, Crude and European Age-Standardised (AS) Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, Males, UK, 2013

England Wales Scotland Northern Ireland UK
Cases 40,372 2,634 3,276 1,018 47,300
Crude Rate 152.2 173.8 126.7 113.5 150.0
AS Rate 185.7 190.2 146.2 153.3 181.8
AS Rate - 95% LCL 183.9 182.9 141.2 143.9 180.2
AS Rate - 95% UCL 187.5 197.5 151.2 162.7 183.5

95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and upper confidence limits Open a glossary item around the AS rate Open a glossary item

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

Prostate cancer incidence rates vary moderately throughout the UK wit the lowest rates in the north, and higher than average rates in many parts of London and the south.[5-6] In Scotland, rates are highest in the south-east; and in Wales there is little variation between regions.[5,6]

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, February 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, March 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.
  5. NCIN. Cancer Incidence and Mortality by Cancer Network, UK, 2005. London: NCIN; 2008.
  6. NCIN. Cancer e-Atlas. Accessed January 2013.
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Prostate cancer incidence is strongly related to age, with the highest incidence rates being in older males. In the UK in 2011-2013, on average each year more than half (54%) of cases were diagnosed in males aged 70 and over.[1-4

Age-specific incidence rates rise sharply from around age 50-54, peak in the 75-79 age group, and subsequently drop in the 80-84 age group, before increasing steadily to the 90+ age group.

Prostate Cancer (C61), Average Number of New Cases per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates, Males, UK, 2011-2013

The age distribution of prostate cancer cases probably partly reflects the age groups in which prostate specific antigen Open a glossary item (PSA) testing and transurethral resection of the prostate Open a glossary item (TURP) are carried out.[5,6]

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, February 2015. Similar data can be found here:http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, March 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.
  5. Williams N, Hughes LJ, Turner EL, et al. Prostate-specific antigen testing rates remain low in UK general practice: a cross-sectional study in six English cities. BJU Int 2011;108(9):1402-8.
  6. Brewster D, Fraser L, Harris V. Rising incidence of prostate cancer in Scotland: increased risk or increased detection? BJU International 2000; 85: 463-473.
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Prostate cancer incidence rates have increased by 155% in males in Great Britain since the late 1970s.[1-3] Incidental detection of asymptomatic disease through new diagnostic techniques plays a large part in this.

European age-standardised Open a glossary item (AS) incidence rates more than doubled (155% increase) between 1979-1981 and 2011-2013. The rise was particularly rapid during the early 1990s (41% increase between 1989-1991 and 1994-1996) and early 2000s (26% increase between 1997-1999 and 2002-2004).

Prostate Cancer (C61), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, Males, Great Britain, 1979-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

Over the last decade (between 2002-2004 and 2011-2013), prostate cancer AS incidence rates in males have increased by 5%.[1-4]

Prostate Cancer (C61), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, Males, UK, 1993-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

Prostate cancer incidence trends clearly reflect incidental detection of asymptomatic disease through transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) Open a glossary item testing.[5-6] PSA testing was introduced in the late 1980s and an estimated 10-20% of men in Europe have had the test.[6-9]

Prostate cancer incidence rates have increased overall for all of the broad age groups in Great Britain since the late 1970s.[1-3] The largest increase has been in males aged 25-49, with European AS incidence rates increasing more than eight-fold (767% increase) between 1979-1981 and 2011-2013, though rates remain relatively low at around 4 per 100,000 males. The rapid increase during the early 1990s (linked with the introduction of PSA testing) was most pronounced for the 50-59 and 60-69 age groups, with increases of 76% and 58%, respectively, between 1989-1991 and 1994-1996. Rates have continued to rise for the 50-59, 60-69 and 70-79 age groups, but for males aged 80+, rates have decreased since the early 2000s, dropping by 19% between 2002-2004 and 2011-2013. PSA testing has essentially brought forward the age at diagnosis for asymptomatic disease, meaning increasing fewer men are diagnosed in older age.[10]

Prostate Cancer (C61), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, by Age, Males, Great Britain, 1979-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, February 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, March 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/.
  5. Bray F, Lortet-Tieulent J, Ferlay J, et al. Prostate cancer incidence and mortality trends in 37 European countries: an overview. Eur J Cancer 2010; 46:3040-52.
  6. Quinn M, Babb P. Patterns and trends in prostate cancer incidence, survival, prevalence and mortality. Part I: international comparison. BJU Int 2002; 90:162-73.
  7. Brewster D, Fraser L, Harris V. Rising incidence of prostate cancer in Scotland: increased risk or increased detection? BJU International 2000; 85: 463-473.
  8. Pashayan N, Powles J, Brown C, et al. Incidence trends of prostate cancer in East Anglia, before and during the era of PSA diagnostic testing. Br J Cancer 2006;95(3):398-400.
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Staging completeness for prostate cancer is moderate in England, with 87% of prostate cancers recorded with a known stage at diagnosis in 2014.[1]

Prostate Cancer (C61), Proportion of Cases Diagnosed at Each Stage, England 2014

Males diagnosed with prostate cancer with a known stage most commonly present at stage I (35%), in England. More males with a known stage are diagnosed at an early stage (57% diagnosed at stage I or II) than an advanced stage (43% diagnosed at stage III or IV). Around a fifth (21%) of males have metastases Open a glossary item at diagnosis (stage IV).[1]

References

  1. National Cancer Intelligence Network. Stage Breakdown by CCG 2014. London: NCIN; 2016. 

About this data

Data is for: England, 2014, ICD-10 C61

Stage at diagnosis data is not yet routinely available for the UK due to inconsistencies in the collecting and recording of staging data in the past.

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The lifetime risk of developing prostate cancer is 1 in 8 for men, in 2012 in the UK.[1]

The lifetime risk for prostate cancer has been calculated on the assumption that the possibility of having more than one diagnosis of prostate cancer over the course of a lifetime is very low (‘Current Probability’ method).[2]

References

  1. Lifetime risk estimates calculated by the Statistical Information Team at Cancer Research UK. Based on data provided by the Office of National Statistics, ISD Scotland, the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit and the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry, on request, December 2013 to July 2014.
  2. Esteve J, Benhamou E and Raymond L. Descriptive epidemiology. IARC Scientific Publications No.128, Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer, pp 67-68 1994.
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There is evidence for a small association between prostate cancer incidence and deprivation in England, with prostate cancer being one of the few cancers where incidence rates are lower for more deprived males.[1] England-wide data for 2006-2010 show European age-standardised Open a glossary item incidence rates are 17% lower for males living in the most deprived areas compared with the least deprived.[1]

Prostate Cancer (C61), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates by Deprivation Quintile, Males, England, 2006-2010

The estimated deprivation gradient in prostate cancer incidence between males living in the most and least deprived areas in England has not changed in the period 1996-2010. It has been estimated that there would have been around 2,500 more prostate cancer cases each year in England during 2006-2010 if all males experienced the same incidence rates as the least deprived.[1]

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Age-standardised Open a glossary item rates for White males with prostate cancer range from 96.0 to 99.9 per 100,000. Rates for Asian males are significantly lower, ranging from 28.7 to 60.6 per 100,000 whereas the rates for Black males are significantly higher, ranging from 120.8 to 247.9 per 100,000.[1]

Ranges are given because of the analysis methodology used to account for missing and unknown data. For prostate cancer, 146,905 cases were identified; 37% had no known ethnicity.

There are similar differences by major ethnic group in the United States.[2] Black men may be diagnosed younger compared with white men, but factors around diagnosis do not fully explain the association between ethnicity and prostate cancer incidence.[3,4]

References

  1. National Cancer Intelligence Network and Cancer Research UK. Cancer Incidence and Survival by Major Ethnic Group, England, 2002-2006. 2009.
  2. Howlader NA, Krapcho M, Neyman N, et al, eds. SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2009 (Vintage 2009 Populations). Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute. Available from: http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2009_pops09/.
  3. Ben-Shlomo Y, Evans S, Ibrahim F, et al. The risk of prostate cancer amongst black men in the United Kingdom: the PROCESS cohort study. Eur Urol 2008;53:99-105.
  4. Metcalfe C, Evans S, Ibrahim F, et al. Pathways to diagnosis for Black men and White men found to have prostate cancer: the PROCESS cohort study. Br J Cancer 2008;99:1040-5.
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In the UK more than 181,000 men were still alive at the end of 2006, up to ten years after being diagnosed with prostate cancer.[1]

Prostate Cancer (C61) Prevalence in the UK, at 31st December 2006

1 Year Prevalence 5 Year Prevalence 10 Year Prevalence
Male 31,452 127,630 181,463

Worldwide, it is estimated that there were around 3.20 million men still alive in 2008, up to five years after their diagnosis.[2]

References

  1. National Cancer Intelligence Network (NCIN). One, Five and Ten Year Cancer Prevalence by Cancer Network, UK, 2006. London: NCIN; 2010.
  2. Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, et al. GLOBOCAN 2008 v1.2, Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 10 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2010. Available from http://globocan.iarc.fr. Accessed May 2011.
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Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Europe for males, and the third most common cancer overall, with around 417,000 new cases diagnosed in 2012 (3% of male cases and 12% of the total). In Europe (2012), the highest World age-standardised Open a glossary item incidence rates for prostate cancer are in Norway; the lowest are in Albania. UK prostate cancer incidence rates are estimated to be the 17th highest in Europe.[1] These data are broadly in line with Europe-specific data available elsewhere.[2]

Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide for males, and the fourth most common cancer overall, with more than 1,111,000 new cases diagnosed in 2012 (15% of male cases and 8% of the total). Prostate cancer incidence rates are highest in Australia/New Zealand and lowest in South Central Asia, but this partly reflects varying data quality worldwide.[1]

Variation between countries may reflect different prevalence of risk factors, use of screening, and diagnostic methods.

References

  1. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Available from:http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed December 2013.
  2. Ferlay J, Steliarova-Foucher E, Lortet-Tieulent J, et al.Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in Europe: Estimates for 40 countries in 2012. European Journal of Cancer (2013) 49, 1374-1403.
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