Liver cancer incidence statistics

Cases

New cases of liver cancer, 2013, UK

 

Proportion of all cases

Percentage liver cancer is of total cancer cases, 2013, UK

 

Age

Age that almost 6 in 10 of liver cancer cases are diagnosed, 2011-2013, UK

 

Trend since 1970s

Liver cancer incidence rates have increased since the late 1970s, GB

 

Liver cancer is the 18th most common cancer in the UK (2013), accounting for 2% of all new cases. In males, it is the 14th most common cancer (2% of the male total), whilst it is the 19th in females (1%).[1-4]

In 2013, there were 5,413 new cases of liver cancer in the UK: 3,491 (64%) in males and 1,922 (36%) in females, giving a male:female ratio of around 18:10.[1-4] The crude incidence rate Open a glossary item shows that there are 11 new liver cancer cases for every 100,000 males in the UK, and 6 for every 100,000 females.

In males, the European age-standardised incidence rate Open a glossary item (AS rate) is significantly higher in Scotland than in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.[1-4] There are no significant differences between the other constituent countries of the UK for either sex.

Liver Cancer (C22), Number of New Cases, Crude and European Age-Standardised (AS) Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2013

England Wales Scotland Northern Ireland UK
Male Cases 2,799 183 431 78 3,491
Crude Rate 10.5 12.1 16.7 8.7 11.1
AS Rate 12.9 12.8 19.7 12.7 13.4
AS Rate - 95% LCL 12.4 10.9 17.8 9.9 13.0
AS Rate - 95% UCL 13.3 14.6 21.6 15.5 13.9
Female Cases 1,588 114 179 41 1,922
Crude Rate 5.8 7.3 6.5 4.4 5.9
AS Rate 6.0 6.6 6.4 4.9 6.0
AS Rate - 95% LCL 5.7 5.4 5.5 3.4 5.7
AS Rate - 95% UCL 6.3 7.8 7.4 6.5 6.3
Persons Cases 4,387 297 610 119 5,413
Crude Rate 8.1 9.6 11.4 6.5 8.4
AS Rate 9.1 9.7 12.3 8.1 9.4
AS Rate - 95% LCL 8.8 8.6 11.3 6.7 9.1
AS Rate - 95% UCL 9.4 10.8 13.3 9.6 9.6

95% LCL and UCL are the 95% lower and upper confidence limits Open a glossary item around the AS rate Open a glossary item

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

Liver cancer incidence rates throughout the UK vary significantly between the former cancer networks, with the highest rates in the North of England, and parts of Scotland and London. The lowest rates are in the South East of England, as well as parts of the Midlands and Wales.[5]

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, February 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, March 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/
  5. Liver cancer (C21) European age-standardised incidence rates by UK Cancer Networks, 2008-2010. These data were extracted from the UK Cancer Information Service, version 4.5b 001 on 16/01/2014 
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Liver cancer incidence is strongly related to age, with the highest incidence rates being in older males and females. In the UK in 2011-2013, on average each year almost 6 in 10 (58%) cases were diagnosed in people aged 70 and over.[1-4]

Age-specific incidence rates rise from around age 40-44, steadily for females and more steeply for males, peak in the 85-89 age group and subsequently drop. Incidence rates are higher for males than for females, from age 40-44, with no significant sex differences in younger age groups. This gap is widest at age 55-59, when the male:female ratio of age-specific incidence rates (to account for the different proportions of males to females in each age group) is around 28:10.[1-4]

Liver Cancer (C22), Average Number of New Cases per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2011-2013

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, February 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, March 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/
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Liver cancer incidence rates have increased by 236% in Great Britain since the late 1970s.[1-3] For males and females the pattern is similar and much of the increase has occurred since the early 1990s.

For males, European age-standardised Open a glossary item (AS) incidence rates increased by more than three times (217% increase) between 1979-1981 and 2011-2013. The rise is larger for females, with rates having increased by 224% between 1979-1981 and 2011-2013.

Liver Cancer (C22), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, Great Britain, 1979-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

Over the last decade in the UK (between 2002-2004 and 2011-2013), liver cancer AS incidence rates have increased by 53% in males and females combined, with a similar increase in males (55%) and females (46%).[1-4]

Liver Cancer (C22), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, UK, 1993-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

Liver cancer incidence trends probably reflect changing prevalence of risk factors, with recent incidence trends influenced by risk factor prevalence in years past.

Liver cancer incidence rates have increased overall for all of the broad age groups in Great Britain since the late 1970s, again with most of the increase occurring since the early 1990s.[1-3] The largest increases have been in people aged 80+, with European AS incidence rates almost quadrupling (293% increase) between 1979-1981 and 2011-2013. The smallest change has been in people aged 25-49, with European AS incidence rates rising by 99% between 1979-1981 and 2011-2013.[1-3]

Liver Cancer (C22), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, By Age, Great Britain, 1979-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, February 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, March 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/
Last reviewed:

In males, most liver cancer cases are liver cell carcinomas, with much smaller proportions as intrahepatic bile duct carcinomas Open a glossary item, hepatoblastomas and angiosarcomas Open a glossary item of the liver (2010-2012).[1-4]

In females, most liver cancer cases are intrahepatic bile duct carcinomas, with smaller proportions as liver cell carcinomas and much smaller proportions as hepatoblastomas and angiosarcomas of the liver (2010-2012).[1-4]

Most liver cell carcinomas are hepatocellular carcinomas Open a glossary item, and most intrahepatic bile duct carcinomas are cholangiocarcinomas Open a glossary item.[5]

The proportion of liver cell carcinomas is higher in males (61.1%) than females (31.8%), whereas the proportion of intrahepatic bile duct carcinomas is higher in females (53.1%) than in males (26.6%). There are no marked sex differences in other types of liver cancer.[1-4]

A moderate proportion of cases did not have the type of liver cancer recorded in cancer registry data.[1-4]

Liver Cancer (C22), Percentage Distribution of Cases Diagnosed By Morphological Type, by Sex, UK, 2010-2012

Male Female
Morphological Type (ICD-10 code) Average Cases % Average Cases %
Liver Cell Carcinoma (C22.0) 1,760 61.1% 523 31.8%
Intrahepatic Bile Duct Carcinoma (C22.1) 765 26.6% 874 53.1%
Hepatoblastoma (C22.2) 13 0.5% 7 0.4%
Angiosarcoma of Liver (C22.3) 8 0.3% 4 0.3%
Other Sarcomas of Liver (C22.4) 5 0.2% 5 0.3%
Other Specified and Unspecified Carcinomas of Liver (C22.7, C22.9) 328 11.4% 231 14.0%
Total 2,879 100.0% 1,645 100.0%

Cases and percentages may not sum due to rounding

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, June 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/CancerInformation/.
  5. West J, Wood H, Logan RF, et al. Trends in the incidence of primary liver and biliary tract cancers in England and Wales 1971-2001. Brit J C 2006;94:1751-8.
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The lifetime risk of developing liver cancer is around 1 in 105 for men and around 1 in 195 for women, in 2012 in the UK.[1]

The lifetime risk for liver cancer has been calculated on the assumption that the possibility of having more than one diagnosis of liver cancer over the course of a lifetime is very low (‘Current Probability’ method).[2]

References

  1. Lifetime risk estimates calculated by the Statistical Information Team at Cancer Research UK. Based on data provided by the Office of National Statistics, ISD Scotland, the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit and the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry, on request, December 2013 to July 2014.
  2. Esteve J, Benhamou E and Raymond L. Descriptive epidemiology. IARC Scientific Publications No.128, Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer, pp 67-68 1994.
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There is evidence for a strong association between liver cancer incidence and deprivation for males in England, but there is no evidence for an association for females.[1] England-wide data for 2006-2010 show European age-standardised Open a glossary item incidence rates are 107% higher for males living in the most deprived areas compared with the least deprived, but for females the rates are similar for those living in the least and most deprived areas.[1]

Liver Cancer (C22), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates by Deprivation Quintile, England, 2006-2010

The estimated deprivation gradient in liver cancer incidence for males and females living in the most and least deprived areas in England has not changed in the period 1996-2010.[1] It has been estimated that there would have been around 650 fewer cancer cases each year in England during 2006-2010 if all people experienced the same incidence rates as the least deprived.[1]

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Age-standardised Open a glossary item rates for White males with liver cancer range from 4.7 to 5.1 per 100,000. Rates for Asian males are significantly higher, ranging from 6.9 to 12.4 per 100,000 and the rates for Black males are also significantly higher, ranging from 6.9 to 13.6 per 100,000. For females there is a similar pattern - the age-standardised rates for White females range from 2.2 to 2.4 per 100,000, and rates for Asian and Black females are also significantly higher ranging from 3.1 to 6.0 per 100,000 and 2.5 to 5.4 per 100,000 respectively.[1]

Ranges are given because of the analysis methodology used to account for missing and unknown data. For liver cancer, 12,427 cases were identified; 24% had no known ethnicity.

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In the UK around 2,600 people were still alive at the end of 2006, up to ten years after being diagnosed with liver cancer.[1]

Liver Cancer (C22), One, Five and Ten Year Cancer Prevalence, UK, 31st December 2006

1 Year Prevalence 5 Year Prevalence 10 Year Prevalence
Male 709 1,380 1,727
Female 404 728 899
Persons 1,113 2,108 2,626

Worldwide, it is estimated that there were more than 613,000 men and women still alive in 2008, up to five years after their diagnosis.[2]

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Liver cancer is the 14th most common cancer in Europe, with around 63,500 new cases diagnosed in 2012 (2% of the total). In Europe (2012), the highest World age-standardised Open a glossary item incidence rates for liver cancer are in the Republic of Moldova for both men and women; the lowest rates are in Iceland for men and The Netherlands for women. UK liver cancer incidence rates are estimated to be the 14th lowest in males and Europe, and 17th lowest in females.[1] These data are broadly in line with Europe-specific data available elsewhere.[2]

Liver cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, with more than 782,000 new cases diagnosed in 2012 (6% of the total). Liver cancer incidence rates are highest in Eastern Asia and lowest in South Central Asia, but this partly reflects varying data quality worldwide.[1]

Variation between countries may reflect different prevalence of risk factors, use of screening, and diagnostic methods.

References

  1. Ferlay J, Steliarova-Foucher E, Lortet-Tieulent J, et al.Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in Europe: Estimates for 40 countries in 2012. European Journal of Cancer (2013) 49, 1374-1403. 
  2. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed December 2013. 
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Cancer Statistics Explained

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