A study looking at improving radiotherapy for bladder cancer - APPLY

Please note - this trial is no longer recruiting patients. We hope to add results when they are available.

Cancer type:

Bladder cancer




Phase 2

This study is looking at using a new type of CT scanning to improve radiotherapy treatment for people with invasive bladder cancer. This new type of CT scanning is called a ‘Cone beam’ CT scan and is taken when you have your radiotherapy treatment.

Doctors often treat invasive bladder cancer with radiotherapy. Before starting treatment the doctors will carefully plan your radiotherapy treatment, so they know how much to give and where to give it. This is to make sure that they give the highest dose of radiation to your cancer and as little as possible to the surrounding healthy tissue. As a part of the planning they will do a ‘planning CT scan’.

The doctors will ask you to empty your bladder before the planning CT scan and your treatment to make sure that the bladder is in the same position. But the bladder is a stretchy bag of muscle that can change size, shape and position.

We know from research that even if the bladder is empty this does not mean that it will be the same size, shape or in the same position for treatment as it was for the planning CT scan.

In this study the researchers will make a set of treatment plans so that they are able to treat the different sizes of the bladder.

The researchers want to use the ‘Cone beam’ CT scan pictures taken before each treatment to make sure that they can choose the best treatment on that day.

The aim of this study is to see if using the ‘Cone beam’ CT scanning can improve the radiotherapy treatment given to people with invasive bladder cancer.

Who can enter

You can enter this trial if you

  • Have cancer of the bladder that has spread into the muscle layer or if it has spread outside the bladder it has not gone beyond the prostate Open a glossary item, womb (uterus Open a glossary item) or vagina Open a glossary item (stage T2 to T4a)
  • Are due to have radiotherapy once a week to treat your bladder cancer (your doctor can advise about this)
  • Are at least 18 years old

You cannot enter this trial if you

  • Have had radiotherapy to the area between your hips before (your pelvis)
  • Have a tube into your bladder to drain your urine (urinary catheter)

Trial design

This is a phase 2 study. It will recruit about 42 people from the Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust.

You will have 1 treatment (fraction) of radiotherapy to your bladder each week, for 4 to 6 weeks. Before and after each treatment, the study team will use a special CT scanner to scan your bladder. They will do this in the treatment room where you have your radiotherapy.

They will use the results of the scan before treatment, to plan exactly where to treat your bladder on that day.

They will take another scan after your treatment to confirm they have treated that area.

Hospital visits

Taking the scan before and after each radiotherapy session will only add about 4 minutes to the total time of each session.

When you have finished your radiotherapy, you will see the doctor at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months and 1 year.  At 3 months you have a CT scan of the urinary tract or a cystoscopy.

Side effects

There are no side effects from taking part in this trial.

You can find out about the side effects of radiotherapy to the bladder on CancerHelp UK.

Recruitment start:

Recruitment end:

How to join a clinical trial

Please note: In order to join a trial you will need to discuss it with your doctor, unless otherwise specified.

Please note - unless we state otherwise in the summary, you need to talk to your doctor about joining a trial.

Chief Investigator

Professor Robert Huddart

Supported by

Institute of Cancer Research (ICR)

Questions about cancer? Contact our information nurses

Freephone 0808 800 4040

Last review date

CRUK internal database number:

Oracle 4574

Please note - unless we state otherwise in the summary, you need to talk to your doctor about joining a trial.

Around 1 in 5 people take part in clinical trials

3 phases of trials

Around 1 in 5 people diagnosed with cancer in the UK take part in a clinical trial.

Last reviewed:

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