External radiotherapy usually uses high energy x-rays to kill cancer cells.
Radiotherapy for womb cancer
Many women have radiotherapy after surgery for womb cancer.
You might have radiotherapy as your main treatment if you can't have surgery. This might be because you are not fit enough for an operation for example.
Doctors also use radiotherapy to treat womb cancer that has come back in the pelvic area. And to help relieve symptoms in women with cancer that has spread to other areas of the body (advanced cancer).
You have radiotherapy in the hospital radiotherapy department, usually as an outpatient. You have the treatment in short sessions (called fractions) each day from Monday to Friday. You don’t have treatment at weekends.
Generally, a course of radiotherapy lasts 4 to 5 weeks.
Planning your treatment
The radiotherapy team plan your external beam radiotherapy before you start treatment. This means working out the dose of radiotherapy you need and exactly where you need it.
Your planning appointment takes from 15 minutes to 2 hours.
You usually have a planning CT scan in the radiotherapy department.
The scan shows the cancer and the area around it. You might have other types of scans or x-rays to help your treatment team plan your radiotherapy. The plan they create is just for you.
Your radiographers tell you what is going to happen. They help you into position on the scan couch. You might have a type of firm cushion called a vacbag to help you keep still.
The CT scanner couch is the same type of bed that you lie on for your treatment sessions. You need to lie very still. Tell your radiographers if you aren't comfortable.
Injection of dye
You might need an injection of contrast into a vein in your hand. This is a dye that helps body tissues show up more clearly on the scan.
Before you have the contrast, your radiographer asks you about any medical conditions or allergies. Some people are allergic to the contrast.
Having the scan
Once you are in position your radiographers put some markers on your skin. They move the couch up and through the scanner. They then leave the room and the scan starts.
The scan takes about 5 minutes. You won't feel anything. Your radiographers can see and hear you from the CT control area where they operate the scanner.
Ink and tattoo marks
The radiographers make pin point sized tattoo marks on your skin. They use these marks to line you up into the same position every day. The tattoos make sure they treat exactly the same area for all of your treatments. They may also draw marks around the tattoos with a permanent ink pen, so that they are clear to see when the lights are low.
The radiotherapy staff tell you how to look after the markings. The pen marks might start to rub off in time, but the tattoos won’t. Tell your radiographer if that happens. Don't try to redraw them yourself.
After your planning session
It can take a few days or up to 3 weeks before you start treatment.
Your radiographers and doctors create your radiotherapy plan. They make sure that the area of the cancer will receive a high dose and nearby areas receive a low dose. This reduces the side effects you might get during and after treatment.
The radiotherapy room
Radiotherapy machines are very big. They rotate around you to give you your treatment. The machine doesn't touch you at any point.
Before you start your course of treatment your
Before your treatment
Your radiographers help you get into position on the treatment couch. They line up the radiotherapy machine, using the marks on your skin.
Then they leave you alone in the room for a few minutes for the treatment. This is so they aren't exposed to radiation.
During the treatment
You need to lie very still on your back. Your radiographers might take images (x-rays or scans) before your treatment to make sure that you're in the right position. The machine makes whirring and beeping sounds. You won’t feel anything when you have the treatment.
Your radiographers can see and hear you on a CCTV screen in the next room. They can talk to you over an intercom and might ask you to hold your breath or take shallow breaths at times. You can also talk to them through the intercom or raise your hand if you need to stop or if you're uncomfortable.
You won't be radioactive
This type of radiotherapy won't make you radioactive. It's safe to be around other people, including pregnant women and children.
Travelling to radiotherapy appointments
Tell the radiotherapy department if you prefer treatment at a particular time of day. They can try to arrange this.
Car parking can be difficult at hospitals. It’s worth asking the radiotherapy unit staff:
- if they can give you a hospital parking permit
- about discounted parking rates
- where you can get help with travel fares
- for tips on free places to park nearby
If you have no other way to get to the hospital, the radiotherapy staff might be able to arrange hospital transport for you. But it might not always be at convenient times. To see if you're eligible they usually work it out based on your earnings or income.
Some hospitals have their own drivers or can arrange ambulances. Some charities offer hospital transport.
Radiotherapy for womb cancer can cause diarrhoea and sickness. Your vagina may become sore and you may have an irritable bladder (radiation cystitis). Radiotherapy can also cause tiredness.
Side effects usually go within a few weeks of finishing treatment.
Tell your doctor, nurse or radiographer if you have any side effects, as they can give you medicines to help.