Chemotherapy uses anti cancer (cytotoxic) drugs to destroy cancer cells. The drugs circulate around your body in the bloodstream.
You might have chemotherapy if you have a higher risk of your cancer coming back. Or if your cancer has already spread. You usually have a combination of chemotherapy drugs.
You have the drugs into your bloodstream by injection or through a drip (intravenously).
When you have it
You might have chemotherapy to:
- help prevent the cancer coming back after you've had surgery to remove a testicle (this is called adjuvant chemotherapy)
- treat cancer that has come back (relapsed) after initial treatment
- treat cancer that has spread outside the testicle
Types of drugs
You usually have a combination of drugs to treat testicular cancer. Or you might have a drug called carboplatin on its own. The most common types of chemotherapy drugs are:
- bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP)
- etoposide and cisplatin (EP)
- vinblastine, ifosfamide, cisplatin (VeIP)
Other combinations include:
- etoposide, ifosfamide, cisplatin (VIP)
- paclitaxel (Taxol), ifosfamide, cisplatin) (TIP)
- cisplatin, vincristine, methotrexate, bleomycin, actinomycin, cyclophosphamide and etoposide (POMB/ACE)
- gemcitabine, ifosfamide and cisplatin (GIP)
Check the name of the chemotherapy treatment with your doctor or nurse. Then you can find out about it on our A to Z list of cancer drugs.
How you have chemotherapy
You usually have several types of chemotherapy drugs together. You have them into your bloodstream (intravenously).
Into your bloodstream
You have treatment through a thin short tube (a cannula) that goes into a vein in your arm each time you have treatment.
You usually have chemotherapy as a course of several cycles of treatment. A cycle of treatment is the time between 1 round of treatment and the start of another. Usually each treatment cycle lasts 3 weeks (21 days).
You have chemotherapy on set days of each cycle.
The number of cycles you have depends on:
- whether your cancer has spread
- how well your cancer responds to the drugs
Preventing blood clots
Having chemotherapy can increase your risk of developing blood clots. Your risk of getting a blood clot will depend on your situation.
Your doctor might suggest you take a drug to lower your risk of developing a blood clot. They will talk to you about your risk. And they will tell you about the risks and benefits of taking medicines to lower your risk.
Where you have chemotherapy
You usually have treatment into your bloodstream at the cancer day clinic. You might sit in a chair for a few hours so it’s a good idea to take things in to do. For example, newspapers, books or electronic devices can all help to pass the time. You can usually bring a friend or family member with you.
You have some types of chemotherapy over several days. You might be able to have some drugs through a small portable pump that you take home.
For some types of chemotherapy you have to stay in a hospital ward. This could be overnight or for a couple of days.
Some hospitals may give certain chemotherapy treatments to you at home. Your doctor or nurse can tell you more about this.
Clare Disney (nurse): Hello, my name is Clare and this is a cancer day unit.
So when you arrive and you’ve reported into with the receptionist, one of the nurses will call you through when your treatment is ready, sit you down and go through all the treatment with you.
Morning, Iris. My name is Clare. I am the nurse who is going to be looking after you today. We’re going to start by putting a cannula in the back of your hand and giving you some anti sickness medication. And then I am going to come back to you and talk through the chemotherapy with you and the possible side effects you may experience throughout your treatment. Is that okay?
Before you have each treatment you’ll need to have a blood test to check your bloods are okay. And you’ll also be reviewed by one of the doctors to make sure you’re fit and well for your treatment. Sometimes you’ll have the blood test taken on the day of your treatment; other times you’ll have it the day before your treatment when you see the doctor.
Each chemotherapy is made up for each individual patient, depending on the type of cancer they have and where it is and depending their height, weight and blood results.
So, depending on where your cancer is some people have their chemotherapy drug, their cancer drug by drip, some will have an injection and other people will have tablets.
So, Iris, your chemotherapy is going to be given to you in what we call cycles and the cycles are given every three weeks for a period of six cycles. So, you will be coming in for approximately five months for your chemotherapy.
Depending on where your cancer is and what type of cancer you have will be dependent on how often you come in for treatment. An example of a treatment cycle would be for you to come in on Day 1, Day 8 and Day 15 then to have a week’s break before you come back again for Day 1 treatment.
Depending on the type of treatment that you are having we will also give you some anti sickness tablets to take alongside your chemotherapy and also some drugs to prevent any reactions if that’s appropriate.
All chemotherapy is given over different time periods so it’s best to check with your nurse about how long you are likely to be in the unit for. This can range from anything up to an hour to an all day treatment slot so please be prepared to bring along some bits to keep you occupied books and music.
So, before you go home it’s important to make sure you have got the tablets you need to go home with your anti sickness medications and any other symptom control tablets that you may require. Also, to make sure that you’ve got the telephone numbers for the oncology unit to phone if you have a temperature or you are experiencing any other symptoms at home that you need to ask advice about.
So, please make sure when you leave the unit that you’ve got all the information you require and if you’ve got any questions at all don’t hesitate to ask the nurse who will be able to answer them for you.
Before your next cycle of treatment you will come in and see the doctor in the clinic room, you’ll have a blood test and an examination to make sure you are fit and well for treatment you will then come back the following day or later on that week for treatment.
Before you start chemotherapy
You need to have blood tests to make sure it’s safe to start treatment. You have these either a few days before or on the day you start treatment. You have blood tests before each round or cycle of treatment.
Common chemotherapy side effects include:
- feeling sick
- loss of appetite
- losing weight
- feeling very tired
- a lower resistance to infections
- bleeding and bruising easily
- diarrhoea or constipation
- hair loss
Side effects depend on:
- which drugs you have
- how much of each drug you have
- how you react
Tell your treatment team about any side effects that you have.
Most side effects only last for a few days or so. Your treatment team can help to manage any side effects that you have.
Dietary or herbal supplements and chemotherapy
Let your doctors know if you:
- take any supplements
- have been prescribed anything by alternative or complementary therapy practitioners
It’s unclear how some nutritional or herbal supplements might interact with chemotherapy. They could be harmful.
When you go home
Chemotherapy for testicular cancer can be difficult to cope with. Tell your doctor or nurse about any problems or side effects that you have. The nurse will give you telephone numbers to call if you have any problems at home.