Your type of salivary gland cancer depends on:
- which type of salivary gland your cancer started in
- the type of cell it started in
Where the salivary glands are
There are two main types of salivary glands called the:
- major salivary glands
- minor salivary glands
We have 3 main pairs of major salivary glands, the:
- parotid glands – just under the lobes of your ears
- sublingual glands – under your tongue
- submandibular glands – under each side of your jawbone
As well as the 3 major pairs of salivary glands we have over 600 smaller, minor salivary glands throughout the lining of the mouth and throat.
Most tumours of the salivary gland are not cancer. These are called benign tumours. This is especially so for parotid cancer where 3 out of 4 tumours (75%) are benign.
The symptoms are similar whether a tumour is a cancer or a benign lump. You usually notice a painless lump or swelling:
- on or near your jaw
- in your mouth
- in your neck
There are different types of benign tumours. The most common type are pleomorphic adenomas and are usually slow growing. Your doctor is likely to suggest surgery to remove these as there is a small risk of a cancer developing within the tumour.
You might have a course of radiotherapy if your benign tumour is likely to come back again.
Cells of the salivary glands
The salivary glands are made up of a number of different types of cells. Acinic cells make and release saliva. Mucoepidermoid cells line the gland.
The type of cancer you have is named after the type of cell the cancer started in. The doctor needs to take a biopsy and a specialist looks at the cells under a microscope before they can tell which type it is.
Your doctor tells you which salivary gland is affected and the cell type.
Mucoepidermoid cells are the lining cells of the salivary glands. Cancers of this type form tiny, mucous filled cysts. Most of these cancers develop in the parotid gland but they can also develop in the submandibular glands. They can also develop in the minor salivary glands.
Most mucoepidermoid cancers are slow growing but they can be fast growing.
Acinic cell carcinoma
Acinic cell carcinomas are slow growing. These cancers develop in the acinar cells which produce saliva.
This type of tumour is more common in women than men.
Adenoid cystic cancers
About 15 out of every 100 salivary gland cancers (15%) are adenoid cystic cancers. They are one of the most common types of minor salivary gland cancer.
They are usually slow growing and start as a painless lump.
Adenocarcinomas are rare cancers of the salivary gland. They develop in the epithelial cells. These are the lining cells of the body.
They can develop in the major or minor salivary glands.
Malignant mixed cancers
Malignant mixed cell cancers are similar to the most common benign tumour of the salivary gland (pleomorphic adenoma).
A small number of people who have a benign tumour go on to develop a malignant mixed cancer. This is also called carcinoma ex-PSA.
Low grade polymorphous cancers
Polymorphous just means that the cancerous tissue has a variety of different growth patterns when seen under a microscope. These are slow growing cancers.
Although very rare, they are the second most common cancer of the minor salivary glands. They are most common in people between the ages of 50 and 70 years.
There are a number of other even rarer types of salivary gland cancer including:
- squamous cell carcinoma
- anaplastic carcinoma
- undifferentiated carcinoma
These tend to develop later in life and are usually fast growing cancers.
Your treatment depends on which gland the cancer started in.