Lumbar puncture

A lumbar puncture checks whether lymphoma cells have spread into the fluid around the brain and spinal cord. The fluid is called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

You might have a lumbar puncture for certain types of lymphoma or if you have symptoms that suggest the lymphoma may be affecting the brain. 

How you have it

Your doctor uses a needle to take a sample of your cerebrospinal fluid from your lower back. Then they send the sample to the laboratory, where a specialist checks it for lymphoma cells.

You normally have this test in the outpatient department. You have it under local anaesthetic, so you will be awake but the area is numb.

Diagram showing how you have a lumbar puncture

This video explains how you have a lumbar puncture and the side effects you might have. 

Preparing for your lumbar puncture

Check your appointment letter to see how to prepare for your lumbar puncture test.

You can eat and drink before your test and take any medications as normal.

What happens

Your doctor will give you information about the procedure and ask you to sign a consent form. This is a good time to ask any questions you may have.

A staff member asks you to take off your upper clothing and put on a hospital gown.

You usually lie on your side with your knees tucked up into your chest. It's important to stay as still as you can during the test, so make sure you are comfortable before it starts.

The doctor or nurse drapes some sterile covers over you. Then they clean the area with antiseptic fluid, which can feel cold.

You have an injection of anaesthetic into the area, this can sting for a few seconds. When the area is numb, the doctor or nurse puts the lumbar puncture needle in through the skin. It goes into the small of your back and into the space around the spinal cord. You might feel some pressure when the needle goes in.

Once it's in the right place, the fluid drips out into a pot. This only takes a few seconds.

Your doctor or nurse takes the needle out and puts a dressing or plaster on your back.

The whole test takes about 20 to 30 minutes. It can be uncomfortable but it's not usually painful.

After your lumbar puncture

You lie flat for an hour or so after the test.

Tell your doctor or nurse if you have a headache, so they can give you some pain killers. Lying flat and drinking plenty of fluids may relieve your headache. This may last for a couple of days so make sure you have pain killers to take home. 

You will have a dressing on the skin where they did the test. You usually remove this the next day.

You can usually go home the same day. 

Getting your results

Your scan will be looked at by a specialist doctor and you should get your results within 1 or 2 weeks. You won't get any results at the time of the scan. 

Waiting for test results can make you anxious. Ask your doctor or nurse how long it will take to get them. Contact them if you haven’t heard anything after a couple of weeks.

You might have the contact details for a specialist nurse. You can contact them for information and support if you need to. It may help to talk to a close friend or relative about how you feel. 

For support and information, you can call the Cancer Research UK nurses on freephone 0808 800 4040. The lines are open from 9am to 5pm, Monday to Friday.

Contact the doctor that arranged the test if you haven't heard anything after a couple of weeks.

Possible risks

A lumbar puncture is a very safe procedure but your nurse will tell you who to contact if you have any problems after your test.

Your doctors will make sure the benefits of having a lumbar puncture outweigh these possible risks.

Headache

If your headache doesn't get better contact your hospital team.

Pain

You might have lower back pain for a couple of days after the test. Contact your hospital team if the pain is severe.

Bleeding

You might notice a small amount of blood stained ooze on the plaster or dressing. 

Very rarely you may have bleeding for more than 15 minutes. Contact your hospital team, they can give you advice on what best to do.

Infection

This is very rare. Contact the hospital straight away if you:

  • have a high temperature
  • are being sick
  • are sensitive to bright light
  • have tingling or numbness in your legs
  • have a severe headache

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