Chemotherapy means treatment using anti cancer or cytotoxic drugs. These drugs disrupt the growth of cancer cells and destroy them. The drugs circulate in the bloodstream around the body.
How you have it
You might have:
- chemotherapy together with radiotherapy (chemoradiotherapy)
- chemotherapy on its own
You might have chemotherapy before radiotherapy. This aims to shrink the tumour and make it easier to treat with radiotherapy.
You might have 2 or more chemotherapy drugs together. Using 2 or more drugs together sometimes works better than using one drug.
Chemotherapy with radiotherapy (chemoradiotherapy)
If your nasopharyngeal cancer has grown into the lymph nodes or tissues around your nasopharynx, you may have chemotherapy and radiotherapy at the same time. You might hear your doctor call this chemoradiotherapy.
Some chemotherapy drugs make cancer cells more sensitive to radiotherapy, so doctors use them together. Chemoradiotherapy is quite a tough treatment to get through. You will have some tests to see if you’re fit enough to cope with the side effects. If chemoradiotherapy is not suitable for you, you have radiotherapy alone to treat your cancer.
Chemotherapy on its own
There is some research to suggest that people with stage 3 and stage 4 nasopharyngeal cancer may be helped by extra chemotherapy as well as chemoradiotherapy. This can help to control the disease and reduce the risk of the cancer coming back. You may have the extra chemotherapy before or after your chemoradiotherapy. Doctors call it adjuvant chemotherapy if you have it after radiotherapy, or neo adjuvant if you have it before.
Having chemotherapy over a longer period of time does cause added side effects and may only be suitable for some patients. There are still some questions to be answered about this extra chemotherapy, such as the best drugs to use, the precise dose and the timing of treatments. We also need to know more about how useful extra chemotherapy is in improving long term survival.
If the cancer has spread to another part of your body or has come back after treatment, you may have chemotherapy alone. This may shrink the cancer and help to control any symptoms the cancer is causing.
Cisplatin and fluorouracil (5FU) are the most common chemotherapy drugs used for nasopharyngeal cancer.
How you have chemotherapy
You have the treatment through a drip into your arm or hand. A nurse puts a small tube (a cannula) into one of your veins and connects the drip to it.
You might need a central line. This is a long plastic tube that gives the drugs into a large vein, either in your chest or through a vein in your arm. It stays in while you’re having treatment, which may be for a few months.
Where you have chemotherapy
You usually have treatment into your bloodstream at the cancer day clinic. You might sit in a chair for a few hours so it’s a good idea to take newspapers, books or electronic devices to help to pass the time. You can usually bring a friend or family member with you.
You have some types of chemotherapy over several days. You might be able to have some drugs through a small portable pump that you take home.
For some types of chemotherapy you have to stay in a hospital ward. This could be overnight or for a couple of days.
Clare Disney (nurse): Hello, my name is Clare and this is a cancer day unit.
So when you arrive and you’ve reported into with the receptionist, one of the nurses will call you through when your treatment is ready, sit you down and go through all the treatment with you.
Morning, Iris. My name is Clare. I am the nurse who is going to be looking after you today. We’re going to start by putting a cannula in the back of your hand and giving you some anti sickness medication. And then I am going to come back to you and talk through the chemotherapy with you and the possible side effects you may experience throughout your treatment. Is that okay?
Before you have each treatment you’ll need to have a blood test to check your bloods are okay. And you’ll also be reviewed by one of the doctors to make sure you’re fit and well for your treatment. Sometimes you’ll have the blood test taken on the day of your treatment; other times you’ll have it the day before your treatment when you see the doctor.
Each chemotherapy is made up for each individual patient, depending on the type of cancer they have and where it is and depending their height, weight and blood results.
So, depending on where your cancer is some people have their chemotherapy drug, their cancer drug by drip, some will have an injection and other people will have tablets.
So, Iris, your chemotherapy is going to be given to you in what we call cycles and the cycles are given every three weeks for a period of six cycles. So, you will be coming in for approximately five months for your chemotherapy.
Depending on where your cancer is and what type of cancer you have will be dependent on how often you come in for treatment. An example of a treatment cycle would be for you to come in on Day 1, Day 8 and Day 15 then to have a week’s break before you come back again for Day 1 treatment.
Depending on the type of treatment that you are having we will also give you some anti sickness tablets to take alongside your chemotherapy and also some drugs to prevent any reactions if that’s appropriate.
All chemotherapy is given over different time periods so it’s best to check with your nurse about how long you are likely to be in the unit for. This can range from anything up to an hour to an all day treatment slot so please be prepared to bring along some bits to keep you occupied books and music.
So, before you go home it’s important to make sure you have got the tablets you need to go home with your anti sickness medications and any other symptom control tablets that you may require. Also, to make sure that you’ve got the telephone numbers for the oncology unit to phone if you have a temperature or you are experiencing any other symptoms at home that you need to ask advice about.
So, please make sure when you leave the unit that you’ve got all the information you require and if you’ve got any questions at all don’t hesitate to ask the nurse who will be able to answer them for you.
Before your next cycle of treatment you will come in and see the doctor in the clinic room, you’ll have a blood test and an examination to make sure you are fit and well for treatment you will then come back the following day or later on that week for treatment.
Before you start chemotherapy
You need to have blood tests to make sure it’s safe to start treatment. You have these either a few days before or on the day you start treatment. You have blood tests before each round or cycle of treatment.
Common chemotherapy side effects include:
- feeling sick
- loss of appetite
- losing weight
- feeling very tired
- a lower resistance to infections
- bleeding and bruising easily
- diarrhoea or constipation
- hair loss
Side effects depend on:
- which drugs you have
- how much of each drug you have
- how you react
Tell your treatment team about any side effects that you have.
Most side effects only last for a few days or so. Your treatment team can help to manage any side effects that you have.
You can read about side effects in detail on the pages about each chemotherapy drug.
Dietary or herbal supplements and chemotherapy
Let your doctors know if you take any supplements or if you have been prescribed anything by alternative or complementary therapy practitioners.
It’s unclear how some nutritional or herbal supplements might interact with chemotherapy. They could be harmful.
When you go home
Chemotherapy can be difficult to cope with. Tell your doctor or nurse about any problems or side effects that you have. The nurse will give you telephone numbers to call if you have any problems at home.