Ibrutinib is a type of targeted cancer drug. It is a treatment for:
- mantle cell lymphoma
- chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL)
- Waldenstrom's macroglobulinaemia
How ibrutinib works
Ibrutinib is a type of cancer growth blocker called a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI).
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors block chemical messengers (enzymes) called tyrosine kinases. Tyrosine kinases help to send growth signals in cells, so blocking them stops the cell growing and dividing.
How you have ibrutinib
You have ibrutinib as tablets that you swallow.
You take the tablets whole with a full glass of water. You should not break, or chew the tablets. Take them at the same time each day.
Taking your tablets
You should take the right dose, not more or less.
Talk to your specialist or advice line before you stop taking a cancer drug.
When you have ibrutinib
You take ibrutinib once a day. How many tablets you have each day depends on your type of cancer.
You usually carry on taking ibrutinib if:
- it is controlling the growth of your cancer
- your side effects are not too severe
You have blood tests before and during your treatment. They check your levels of blood cells and other substances in the blood. They also check how well your liver and kidneys are working.
How often and how severe the side effects are can vary from person to person. They also depend on what other treatments you're having. For example, your side effects could be worse if you're also having other drugs or radiotherapy.
When to contact your team
Your doctor, nurse or pharmacist will go through the possible side effects. They will monitor you closely during treatment and check how you are at your appointments. Contact your advice line as soon as possible if:
- you have severe side effects
- your side effects aren’t getting any better
- your side effects are getting worse
Early treatment can help manage side effects better.
We haven't listed all the side effects here. Remember it is very unlikely that you will have all of these side effects, but you might have some of them at the same time.
Common side effects
These side effects happen in more than 10 in 100 people (more than 10%). You might have one or more of them. They include:
Risk of infection
Increased risk of getting an infection is due to a drop in white blood cells. Symptoms include a change in temperature, aching muscles, headaches, feeling cold and shivery and generally unwell. You might have other symptoms depending on where the infection is.
Infections can sometimes be life threatening. You should contact your advice line urgently if you think you have an infection.
Bruising and bleeding
This is due to a drop in the number of platelets in your blood. These blood cells help the blood to clot when we cut ourselves. You may have nosebleeds or bleeding gums after brushing your teeth. Or you may have lots of tiny red spots or bruises on your arms or legs (known as petechiae).
You might develop a cough or breathing problems. This could be due to infection, such as pneumonia or inflammation of the lungs.
Tell your doctor or nurse if you keep getting headaches. They can give you painkillers to help.
High blood pressure (hypertension)
Tell your doctor or nurse if you have headaches, nosebleeds, blurred or double vision or shortness of breath. Your nurse will check your blood pressure regularly.
Diarrhoea or constipation
Tell your doctor or nurse if you have diarrhoea or constipation. They can give you medicine to help.
Feeling or being sick
Feeling or being sick is usually well controlled with anti sickness medicines. Avoiding fatty or fried foods, eating small meals and snacks, drinking plenty of water, and relaxation techniques can all help.
It is important to take anti sickness medicines as prescribed even if you don’t feel sick. It is easier to prevent sickness rather than treating it once it has started.
Mouth sores and ulcers can be painful. Keep your mouth and teeth clean; drink plenty of fluids; chew gum to keep the mouth moist and tell your doctor or nurse if you have ulcers.
A rash can also be itchy. Tell your doctor or nurse if you have a skin rash. They can prescribe medicine to stop the itching and soothe your skin.
Joint or muscle pain
You might feel some pain from your muscles and joints. Speak to your doctor or nurse about what painkillers you can take to help with this.
You may also have muscle spasms during treatment.
Fluid build up in your hands and legs
You may have swelling of your hands and legs due to a build up of fluid (oedema).
This can be painful.
High temperature (fever)
If you get a high temperature, let your health care team know straight away. Ask them if you can take paracetamol to help lower your temperature.
Occasional side effects
These side effects happen in between 1 and 10 out of every 100 people (between 1 and 10%). You might have one or more of them. They include:
- a severe infection (sepsis) which can cause difficulty breathing, high or low temperature and a skin rash – see your doctor immediately if this happens
- a bladder infection which can cause pain when you pass urine
- swelling of the sinuses which can cause pain, reduced sense of smell and blocked nose
- an increase in risk of getting a skin cancer called non melanoma skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma
- an increase in the number of white blood cells that help fight off infections
- high levels of uric acid and other substances in the blood due to the breakdown of tumour cells (tumour lysis syndrome) – this can cause swelling in the joints of your foot (gout), diarrhoea, muscle cramps, weakness, nausea and vomiting
- dizziness - don’t drive or operate machinery if you have this
- blurred vision
- skin problems such as redness of the skin and swollen red bumps (hives)
- nail problems which can cause your nails to break or separate from the nail bed
- weakness, numbness, tingling or pain in your hands or feet or other parts of your body
- irregular and fast heart rate causing shortness of breath and light headedness
Rare side effects
This side effects happens in fewer than 1 in 100 people (fewer than 1%). You might have one or more of them. They include:
- an allergic skin reaction which includes a swollen face, lip, mouth, tongue or throat
- inflammation underneath the skin
- liver failure and infection of the liver caused by a virus (hepatitis B) if you have had this infection before
- internal bleeding in the brain which can cause confusion, headaches, slurred speech, or feeling faint
- severe fungal infections
- loss of blood flow to the brain (stroke)
Coping with side effects
We have more information about side effects and tips on how to cope with them.
What else do I need to know?
Other medicines, foods and drinks
Cancer drugs can interact with some other medicines and herbal products. Tell your doctor or pharmacist about any medicines you are taking. This includes vitamins, herbal supplements and over the counter remedies.
Do not take ibrutinib with grapefruit or Seville oranges (bitter oranges) – this includes eating them, drinking the juice or taking a supplement that might contain them. This is because it can increase the amount of ibrutinib in your blood.
Taking fish oil, vitamin E or flaxseed may increase your risk of bleeding.
This drug contains lactose (milk sugar). If you have an intolerance to lactose, contact your doctor before taking this medicine.
Loss of fertility
It is not known whether this treatment affects fertility in people. Talk to your doctor before starting treatment if you think you may want to have a baby in the future.
Contraception and pregnancy
This drug may harm a baby developing in the womb. It is important not to become pregnant or father a child while you are having treatment with this drug and for at least 3 months afterwards. Talk to your doctor or nurse about effective contraception before starting treatment.
Don’t breastfeed during this treatment because the drug may come through into your breast milk.
Treatment for other conditions
Always tell other doctors, nurses, pharmacists or dentists that you’re having this treatment if you need treatment for anything else, including teeth problems.
Don’t have immunisations with live vaccines while you’re having treatment and for up to 12 months afterwards. The length of time depends on the treatment you are having. Ask your doctor or pharmacist how long you should avoid live vaccinations.
In the UK, live vaccines include rubella, mumps, measles, BCG, yellow fever and one of the shingles vaccines called Zostavax.
You can have:
- other vaccines, but they might not give you as much protection as usual
- the flu vaccine (as an injection)
- the coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccine - talk to your doctor or pharmacist about the best time to have it in relation to your cancer treatment
Members of your household who are aged 5 years or over are also able to have the COVID-19 vaccine. This is to help lower your risk of getting COVID-19 while having cancer treatment and until your
Contact with others who have had immunisations - You can be in contact with other people who have had live vaccines as injections. Avoid close contact with people who have recently had live vaccines taken by mouth (oral vaccines) such as the oral typhoid vaccine.
If your immune system is severely weakened, you should avoid contact with children who have had the flu vaccine as a nasal spray as this is a live vaccine. This is for 2 weeks following their vaccination.
Babies have the live rotavirus vaccine. The virus is in the baby’s poo for about 2 weeks and could make you ill if your immunity is low. Get someone else to change their nappies during this time if you can. If this isn't possible, wash your hands well after changing their nappy.
More information about this treatment
For further information about this treatment go to the electronic Medicines Compendium (eMC) website.
You can report any side effect you have to the Medicines Health and Regulatory Authority (MHRA) as part of their Yellow Card Scheme.