Find out about the different types of surgery for breast cancer.
Types of surgery
There are many different types of surgery for breast cancer. The type you have depends on:
- the size of the cancer
- where the cancer is in your breast
- the size of your breasts
- your personal wishes and feelings
Surgery to remove just the area of cancer
Surgery to remove the area of cancer in the breast is called wide local excision or lumpectomy. Doctors may also call it breast conserving surgery.
The surgeon takes away the cancer and a border of healthy tissue all around it. They leave behind as much healthy breast tissue as possible.
You usually have radiotherapy to the breast after this type of surgery.
Surgery to remove your whole breast
Some women need surgery to remove their whole breast (mastectomy). Or they might choose to have this operation. The surgeon removes the breast tissue (including the skin and nipple) and the tissues that cover the chest muscles.
Very rarely, the surgeon removes the muscles of the chest wall as well. This is called a radical mastectomy.
You might have radiotherapy after a mastectomy if there is a risk of the cancer coming back in:
- the chest wall
- the area of the scar
- the nearby lymph glands
After mastectomy, you might want to have breast reconstruction. This means the surgeon creates a new breast shape for you.
Your surgeon will talk to you about the different options for breast reconstruction before your operation.
You might have it at the same time as the operation to remove the breast (immediate reconstruction), or some time later (delayed reconstruction).
Removing the lymph nodes
Cancer cells might have spread into the lymph nodes close to the breast.
Lymph nodes are found in many parts of the body. They filter out bacteria and damaged cells from the lymphatic fluid, and contain cells that fight infection.
Your doctor will check your lymph nodes for cancer cells before or during the operation to remove the breast cancer.
If there are cancer cells in your lymph nodes, your surgeon will remove most or all of the nodes under your arm. You might have this during a second operation.
Your doctor might give you a choice of treatments. They might offer you a choice between removing the whole breast or having just the area of cancer removed and then having radiotherapy.
Having your operation
You have surgery for breast cancer under general anaesthetic. You are asleep the whole time.
Many people now have breast surgery as a day case or go home the following day.
If you have breast reconstruction you are more likely to be in hospital for 4 to 7 days.