Find out about the possible complications after surgery to remove the breast.
There is a risk of problems or complications after any operation. Around half of all people who have surgery have a problem or complication. Most problems are minor but some can be serious.
After surgery, you're at risk of blood clots developing in your legs. There is also a small risk of a blood clot in your lungs.
To prevent blood clots, your nurses get you up as soon as possible after your operation. They encourage you to move around or do your leg exercises.
Also, during and after your operation, you wear special stockings (called anti embolism stockings or TEDS). And after your operation you might have injections to thin your blood for a while.
Tell your doctor straight away or go to A&E if you:
- have a painful, red, swollen leg, which may feel warm to touch
- are breathless
- have pain in your chest or upper back
- cough up blood
Feeling tired and weak
Most people feel weak and lack strength for some time afterwards. How long this lasts varies.
Tell your doctor or nurse if the weakness continues for more than a few weeks. They can suggest things to help, such as physiotherapy.
Bleeding from the wound
You might have a small amount of blood on your wound dressing after surgery, which is normal. Your nurse will regularly check your dressing after the operation. Tell your doctor or nurse straight away if there is more bleeding.
Tell your doctor or nurse if your wound:
- looks red or swollen
- feels warm
- is painful
- leaks fluid (discharge)
These are signs of infection. You may also feel unwell and have a temperature.
If you have an infection, your doctor will give you antibiotics. You might need to go into hospital if you need antibiotics through a drip.
Fluid collecting around the operation site (seroma)
Sometimes fluid collects near the wound. This might happen after your nurse removes the wound drain, if you have one.
It can cause:
- an increased risk of infection
The fluid normally goes away on its own within a few weeks. For some people, this can take up to a few months after surgery.
If the seroma is painful, your nurse can drain the fluid with a needle and syringe.
Tell your doctor or nurse if you think a seroma is developing.
Blood collecting around the operation site (haematoma)
Occasionally blood collects in the tissues around the wound. This can cause pain and swelling, and the area might feel hard.
The haematoma normally goes away on its own but it can take a few months. Your doctor or nurse can drain the swelling if needed.
Tell your doctor or nurse if you have any swelling around the wound.
You might have numbness, tingling or a shooting pain in your armpit, upper arm, shoulder or chest wall. This is due to damage to the nerves during surgery.
The nerves usually repair themselves but it can take many weeks or months.
Your doctor or nurse can give you medicines to help with nerve pain.
Your shoulder might become stiff and painful after breast surgery or removal of the lymph nodes.
Your nurse or a physiotherapist will show you exercises to do after your operation to help improve movement in the shoulder.
A swollen arm or hand
You might have some slight swelling in your arm or hand after your operation. This is normal but it should go away if you do the regular exercises to help with stiffness in your shoulder.
Tell your doctor or nurse as soon as possible if you get a lot of swelling, pain, or tenderness in your arm or hand.
You are at risk of long term swelling (lymphoedema) in your hand and arm after surgery to remove your lymph glands. This is swelling caused by lymph fluid that can't drain away. It can happen any time after surgery.
Once you have lymphoedema it can’t be cured but early treatment can help to control it. Your nurse will talk to you about ways of preventing lymphoedema.
Problems after lymph node removal
If you had lymph nodes removed, you might have other problems after surgery.