Coronavirus and cancer

We know it’s a worrying time for people with cancer, we have information to help. If you have symptoms of cancer contact your doctor.

Read our information about coronavirus and cancer

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Breast screening

Screening aims to find breast cancers early, when they have the best chance of being cured.

Because of COVID-19, you might have to wait longer to get an invitation or a follow-up appointment for screening. There might also be changes to what happens at your appointment. This includes the staff following strict guidance on infection control to protect you and themselves. This means that you won’t be able to take someone with you to your appointment. Your results might be delayed, so ask at your appointment how long it might take and who to contact if you haven’t heard in that time. It’s important to remember that screening is for healthy people with no symptoms. If you notice any unusual changes to your body that don’t go away, talk to your doctor. In most cases it won’t be cancer, but it’s best to get it checked out.

What is breast screening?

Cancer screening involves testing apparently healthy people for signs that could show that a cancer is developing.

Breast screening uses a test called mammography which involves taking x-rays of the breasts. Screening can help to find breast cancers early when they are too small to see or feel. These tiny breast cancers are usually easier to treat than larger ones.

It is important to remember that screening will not prevent you from getting breast cancer but aims to find early breast cancers.

Overall, the breast screening programme finds cancer in around 9 out of every 1,000 women having screening.

Who has breast screening?

Each year more than 2 million women have breast cancer screening in the UK. The NHS Breast Screening Programme invites all women from the age of 50 to 70 for screening every 3 years. This means that some people may not have their first screening mammogram until they are 52 or 53 years. 

In some parts of England, the screening programme has been inviting women from 47 to 73 years old as part of a trial.

If you are older than 70, you can still have screening every 3 years but you won't automatically be invited. To make an appointment, talk to your GP or your local breast screening unit.

If you are younger than 50, your risk of breast cancer is generally very low. Mammograms are more difficult to read in younger women because their breast tissue is denser. So the patterns on the mammogram don't show up as well. There is little evidence to show that regular mammograms for women below the screening age would reduce deaths from breast cancer. 

Breast screening is also for some trans or non-binary people. Talk to your GP or Gender Identity Clinic about this. 

Find your local breast screening unit

Tests used in breast screening

Breast screening takes 2 x-rays of each breast. The x-rays are called mammograms. 

Diagram showing a woman having a mammogram

You have one mammogram from above and one from the side on each breast.

After breast screening

You should get your results within 2 weeks. The radiographer can tell you when to expect yours. Most women have a normal reading.

If you have a normal result  

You will receive a letter to let you know your mammogram does not show any signs of cancer. Your next screening appointment will be in 3 years’ time. Do contact your GP or local screening unit if you haven’t received an appointment and think you are due one. 

It is important to see your GP If you notice any symptoms between your screening mammograms.

If the results aren't clear

If the x-ray isn't clear enough or shows any abnormal areas, the clinic staff will call you back for more tests. You might need to have the x-rays taken again.

If you are called back

Around 4 out of 100 women (around 4%) are called back for more tests. If this happens, you might feel very worried. But many of these women won’t have cancer.

If you are called back because your mammogram showed an abnormal area, you might have a magnified mammogram. This can show up particular areas of the breasts more clearly. These mammograms show the borders of any lump or thickened area. They can also show up areas of calcium (calcification). 

You might also have an ultrasound scan of the breast or a test to take a sample of cells from the abnormal area (biopsy) Open a glossary item.

Benefits of breast screening

Breast cancers found by screening are generally at an early stage. Very early breast cancers are usually easier to treat, may need less treatment, and are more likely to be cured.

The current evidence suggests that breast screening reduces the number of deaths from breast cancer by about 1,300 a year in the UK.

Almost all women diagnosed with breast cancer at the earliest possible stage survive for at least 5 years after diagnosis and are likely to be cured.

Harms of breast screening

Although breast screening can find many cancers early, it isn't perfect. There are some risks, and some people may have a false positive or false negative result.

What is a false negative result? 

Screening doesn't always find a cancer that is there. So some people with breast cancer will be missed. This is called a false negative result. 

What is a false positive result?

In some women, the test picks up something even though they don't have breast cancer. This is called a false positive result and can lead to anxiety and further tests such as a breast biopsy.

Overdiagnosis and overtreatment

As well as finding cancers that need treating, screening can also pick up breast cancers that won't ever cause any problems.

At the moment it isn't possible to know whether a breast cancer will grow quickly and need treatment, or will grow slowly, or not at all. So, almost all women diagnosed have surgery to remove the cancer. Many also have radiotherapy, hormone therapy or chemotherapy.

For some women the treatment is unnecessary but at the moment doctors can't tell who needs treatment and who doesn't.

Screening can also pick up changes in the lining of the breast ducts called ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). It isn't possible to tell whether DCIS will develop into a cancer or not. So, many women with DCIS also have surgery and radiotherapy or hormone therapy.

A breast screening review in 2012 found that screening leads to around 4,000 women overdiagnosed in the UK each year.

Exposure to radiation

Each mammogram exposes a woman to small amounts of radiation from the x-rays. But the amount of radiation is very small.

X-rays can very rarely cause cancer. Having mammograms every 3 years for 20 years very slightly increases the chance of getting cancer over a woman’s lifetime.

The balance of benefit and harms

An NHS digital report found that more than 19,500 breast cancers were diagnosed through screening in England between 2018 and 2019. Most of these were found at an early stage.

Treatment is likely to be more successful if the cancer is an early stage.

What happens if I have breast implants?

A mammogram is still the best way to detect early breast cancer, even if you have breast implants. But a small amount of the breast tissue might be hidden by the implant.

This means that it is not as easy to see all the breast tissue, and you may have more x rays taken. This will help the doctor see as much of the breast tissue as possible. 

It is useful to let the screening unit staff know that you have implants before your mammogram.

Screening for women at higher risk

You can have screening from a younger age if you have a higher than average risk of breast cancer. This might be due to a family history or an inherited faulty gene.

Speak to your GP if you think you might be at increased risk. They can refer you to a genetic specialist, who can assess your risk. Not everyone with a family history of cancer is at increased risk themselves.

If you have a family history of breast cancer

UK guidelines recommend that women with a moderate or high risk of breast cancer because of their family history should start having screening mammograms every year in their forties.

If you are younger than 40 and have an increased risk of breast cancer, you should be offered yearly MRI scans from the age of 30 or 40. This depends on your level of risk.

If you have a gene mutation

If you have had tests that showed a change in a gene (mutation) that increases the risk of breast cancer, the recommendations are slightly different.

UK guidelines recommend yearly MRI scans from:

  • age 20 for women with a TP53 mutation
  • age 30 for women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation

Should I go for breast screening?

It’s important that you have access to enough information about the benefits and harms of breast screening to make the decision.

You can talk to your own doctor or nurse. Or you can contact the Cancer Research UK nurses on freephone 0808 800 4040. The lines are open from 9am to 5pm, Monday to Friday.

Breast awareness

Even if you are having mammograms every 3 years it is important to make sure that you know how your breasts normally look and feel. Many breast cancers are still found by women themselves. Cancers can develop between mammograms. This is known as an interval cancer. Mammograms can also miss some cancers.

If you notice any unusual changes in your breast don’t wait until your next mammogram. See your GP straight away. 

Information for people with learning disabilities

You can watch a video about women with learning disabilities who are going to have breast screening. The video was produced by Avon Breast Screening. It is about 11 minutes long. 

Information and help