Breast cancer incidence statistics

Breast cancer has been the most common cancer in the UK since 1997, despite the fact that it is rare in men. It is by far the most common cancer among women in the UK (2011), accounting for 30% of all new cases of cancer in females.[1-4]

In 2011, there were 50,285 new cases of breast cancer in the UK: 49,936 (99%) in women and 349 (less than 1%) in men, giving a female:male ratio of 143:1.[1-4] The crude incidence rate Open a glossary item shows that there are 155 new breast cancer cases for every 100,000 females in the UK, and 1 for every 100,000 males.

European age-standardised incidence rates Open a glossary item (AS rates) are significantly higher in Scotland compared with England and Northern Ireland (females only). Rates do not differ significantly between the other constituent countries of the UK for women or men. For almost two decades, female breast cancer incidence has been lowest in Northern Ireland compared with the three other UK countries, but in 2011 only the difference with Scotland was significant.[5] Scotland is the only nation in the UK where breast cancer is not the most common cancer overall; there lung cancer is more common.[1-4]

Breast Cancer (C50), Number of New Cases, Crude and European Age-Standardised (AS) Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2011

England Wales Scotland Northern Ireland UK
Male Cases 303 11 30 5 349
Crude Rate 1.2 0.7 1.2 0.6 1.1
AS Rate 0.9 0.5 0.9 0.5 0.9
AS Rate - 95% LCL 0.8 0.2 0.6 0.1 0.8
AS Rate - 95% UCL 1.0 0.9 1.2 0.9 1.0
Female Cases 41,523 2,569 4,578 1,266 49,936
Crude Rate 153.9 164.8 169.1 136.9 155.3
AS Rate 124.8 123.3 130.2 118.4 125.1
AS Rate - 95% LCL 123.6 118.5 126.4 111.8 124.0
AS Rate - 95% UCL 126.0 128.0 133.9 124.9 126.2

95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and Age-standardised rate Open a glossary item title upper confidence limits around the AS Rate

There was little geographical variation in breast cancer incidence in the 1990s, with slightly higher rates in some areas of south England (except London) and slightly lower rates in the far north of England.[6] The latest analysis of breast cancer incidence rates throughout the UK reports only modest variation between most cancer networks, but notably higher rates in parts of the Midlands and north west Scotland, and lower rates in parts of London.[7,8]

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2013. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html.
  2. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, June 2013. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/CancerData/OnlineStatistics/
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, June 2013. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=51358
  4. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, May 2013. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp#605
  5. Westlake S, Cooper N. Cancer incidence and mortality: trends in the United Kingdom and constituent countries, 1993 to 2004. Health Statistics Quarterly. 2008. 38. 
  6. Quinn M, Wood H, Cooper N, et al, eds. Cancer Atlas of the United Kingdom and Ireland 1991–2000. Studies on Medical and Population Subjects No. 68. London: ONS; 2005.
  7. NCIN. Cancer Incidence and Mortality by Cancer Network, UK, 2005. London: NCIN; 2008.
  8. NCIN. Cancer e-Atlas.
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Female breast cancer incidence is strongly related to age, with the highest incidence rates overall being in older women, supporting a link with hormonal status. In the UK between 2009 and 2011, an average of 80% of breast cancer cases were diagnosed in the over 50s, and around a quarter (24%) were diagnosed in women aged 75 and over.[1-4] Age-specific incidence rates rise steeply from around age 30-34, level off for women in their 50s, then rise further to age 65-69. Rates drop slightly for women aged 70-74 and then increase steadily to reach an overall peak in the 85+ age group.[1-4] The peaks and troughs of incidence for women aged 50 and over may partly be explained by the impact of screening for breast cancer.

Breast Cancer (C50), Average Number of New Cases per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates, Females, UK, 2009-2011

The age distribution of breast cancer cases largely reflects the age groups eligible for breast screening in the UK. 

Relatively few breast cancer cases are diagnosed in women under 50 in the UK (around 9,800 cases each year), and very few of those cases occur in women in their teens or early 20s. However, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women aged under 40. Among women aged 35-39 in the UK, around 1,300 cases of breast cancer are diagnosed each year.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2013. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html.
  2. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, June 2013. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/CancerData/OnlineStatistics/
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, June 2013. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=51358
  4. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, May 2013. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp#605
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Female breast cancer incidence rates have overall increased in Great Britain since the mid-1970s.[1-3] European AS incidence rates increased by 72% between 1975-1977 and 2009-2011. Between the mid-1970s and the late 1980s, incidence rates increased steadily by around 1-2% per annum.[1-4] The introduction of national screening programmes from the late 1980s led to a transient additional increase in incidence as a prevalent pool of undiagnosed cancers were detected in the population. By the mid-1990s, the increase in incidence rates returned to the pre-screening pace and continued this way until around the mid-2000s, after which time incidence rates have remained relatively stable.[1-3]

Breast Cancer (C50), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, Females, Great Britain, 1975-2011

Over the last decade (between 2000-2002 and 2009-2011), the European age standardised (AS) incidence rate has increased by 7%, with almost this entire rise occurring before the mid-2000s.[1-3,5]

Breast Cancer (C50), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, Females, UK, 1993-2011

Female breast cancer incidence rates have overall increased for all broad age groups in Great Britain since the mid-1970s.[1-3] The largest increases have been in women aged 65-69 and 50-64, with European AS incidence rates around doubling (108% and 95% increases, respectively) between 1975-1977 and 2009-2011. The trends by age-group show clearly that the steeper increase in incidence in the late 1980s and early 1990s was largely confined to women aged 50-64 (the age group for screening when the programmes began). Similarly, the steep rise in rates for women aged 65-69 in the early- to mid-2000s is almost certainly caused by the extension of the breast screening programmes to include this age group, which started in 2001.[1-3] The most recent rates show a slight downturn for both of these age-groups, which is thought to be associated with decreased use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT).[6,7] Similar trends have been seen in other countries.[8-14] It has been estimated that 1,400 fewer cases of breast cancer were diagnosed in women aged 50-59 in the UK in 2005 than would have occurred if HRT use had not declined.[15]

Breast Cancer (C50), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, Females, by Age, Great Britain, 1975-2011

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2013. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html.
  2. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, June 2013. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/CancerData/OnlineStatistics/
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, June 2013. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=51358
  4. Westlake S, Cooper N. Cancer incidence and mortality: trends in the United Kingdom and constituent countries, 1993 to 2004. Health Statistics Quarterly. 2008. 38. 
  5. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, May 2013. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp#605
  6. Farquhar C, Marjoribanks J, Lethaby A, et al. Long term hormone therapy for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009. 15(2):CD004143.
  7. Beral V; Million Women Study Collaborators. Breast cancer and hormone-replacement therapy in the Million Women Study. Lancet 2003. 362(9382):419-27. 
  8. Glass AG, Lacey JV Jr, Carreon JD, et al. Breast cancer incidence, 1980-2006: combined roles of menopausal hormone therapy, screening mammography, and estrogen receptor status. J Natl Cancer Inst 2007. 99:1152-61.
  9. Ravdin PM, Cronin KA, Howlader N, et al. The Decrease in Breast Cancer Incidence in 2003 in the United States. N Engl J Med 2007. 356:1670-4.
  10. Berry DA, Ravdin PM. Breast Cancer Trends: A marriage Between Clinical Trial Evidence and Epidemiology. J Natl Cancer Inst 2007. 99:1139-41.
  11. Rossouw JE, Anderson GL, Prentice RL, et al. Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: principal results from the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2002. 288:321-33.
  12. Chlebowski RT, Kuller LH, Prentice RL, et al. Breast cancer after use of estrogen plus progestin in postmenopausal women. N Engl J Med 2009. 360:573-87.
  13. Kumle M. Declining breast cancer incidence and decreased HRT use. Lancet 2008. 372:608-10.
  14. Brewster DH, Sharpe KH, Clark DI, et al. Declining breast cancer incidence and decreased HRT use. Lancet 2009. 373:459-60.  
  15. Parkin DM. Is the recent fall in incidence of post menopausal breast cancer in UK related to changes in use of hormone replacement therapy? Eur J Cancer 2009. 45(9): 1649-53. 
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Lifetime risk is an estimation of the risk that a newborn child has of being diagnosed with cancer at some point during their life. It is a summary of risk in the population but genetic and lifestyle factors affect the risk of cancer and so the risk for every individual is different.

In 2010, in the UK, the lifetime risk of developing breast cancer is 1 in 8 for women and 1 in 868 for men.[1]

The lifetime risk for breast cancer has been calculated by the Statistical Information Team using the ‘Adjusted for Multiple Primaries’ (AMP) method; this accounts for the possibility that someone can have more than one diagnosis of breast cancer over the course of their lifetime.[2]

References

  1. Lifetime risk was calculated using 2010 data for females and 2008-2010 data for males by the Statistical Information Team at Cancer Research UK, 2012. 
  2. Sasieni PD, Shelton J, Ormiston-Smith N, et al. What is the lifetime risk of developing cancer?: The effect of adjusting for multiple primaries. Br J Cancer 2011;105(3):460-5. 
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Almost a quarter (24%) of all female breast cancer cases in Great Britain between 2008 and 2010 occurred in the upper-outer quadrant of the breast (ICD-10 C50.4). A further 7% were in the upper-inner quadrant (ICD-10 C50.2), and 6% were classified as overlapping more than one region of the breast (ICD-10 C50.8). Almost half (48%) of the cases did not have the specific part of the breast affected recorded in cancer registry data.[1-3]

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2013. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html.
  2. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, June 2013. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/CancerData/OnlineStatistics/
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, June 2013. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=51358
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Data on around 17,800 women diagnosed with breast cancer in the East of England in 2006-2009 shows that, of the 92% of cancers for which a stage was recorded, 41% were Stage I, 45% stage II, 9% stage III and 5% stage IV.[1]

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Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Europe for females, and the most common cancer overall, with more than 464,000 new cases diagnosed in 2012 (29% of female cases and 13% of the total). In Europe (2012), the highest World age-standardised incidence rates for breast cancer are in Belgium; the lowest are in Bosnia Herzegovina. UK breast cancer incidence rates are estimated to be the 6th highest in Europe.[1] These data are broadly in line with Europe-specific data available elsewhere.[2]

Breast cancer is the most common cancer worldwide for females, and the 2nd most common cancer overall, with more than 1,676,000 new cases diagnosed in 2012 (25% of female cases and 12% of the total). Breast cancer incidence rates are highest in Western Europe and lowest in Middle Africa, but this partly reflects varying data quality worldwide.[1]

Variation between countries may reflect different prevalence of risk factors, use of screening, and diagnostic methods.

References

  1. Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed December 2013.
  2. Ferlay J, Steliarova-Foucher E, Lortet-Tieulent J, et al.Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in Europe: Estimates for 40 countries in 2012. European Journal of Cancer (2013) 49, 1374-1403. 
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There is evidence for a small association between female breast cancer incidence and deprivation in England, with breast cancer being one of the few cancers where where incidence rates are lower for more deprived females.[1] England-wide data for 2006-2010 show European age-standardised incidence rates are 14% lower for females living in the most deprived areas compared with the least deprived.[1]

Breast Cancer (C50), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates by Deprivation Quintile, Females, England, 2006-2010

The estimated gap in breast cancer incidence between females living in the most and least deprived areas in England has not changed in the period 1996-2010. It has been estimated that there would have been around 1,900 more breast cancer cases each year in England during 2006-2010 if all females experience the same incidence rates as the least deprived.[1]

Associations with deprivation have also been investigated for mortality.

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Age-standardised rates for White females with breast cancer range from 122.4 to 125.7 per 100,000. Rates for Asian females are significantly lower, ranging from 59.7 to 92.3 per 100,000 and the rates for Black females are also significantly lower, ranging from 68.8 to 107.9 per 100,000.[1]

Ranges are given because of the analysis methodology used to account for missing and unknown data. For female breast cancer, 187,620 cases were identified; 25% had no known ethnicity.

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Prevalence refers to the number of people who have previously received a diagnosis of cancer and who are still alive at a given time point. Some patients will have been cured of their disease and others will not.

In the UK around 296,000 women and around 1,700 men were still alive at the end of 2006, up to ten years after being diagnosed with breast cancer.[1]

Breast Cancer (C50), One, Five and Ten Year Cancer Prevalence, UK, 31st December 2006

1 Year Prevalence 5 Year Prevalence 10 Year Prevalence
Male 256 1,089 1,732
Female 40,137 175,974 296,037
Persons 40,393 177,063 297,769

Worldwide, it is estimated that there were around 5.19 million women still alive in 2008, up to five years after their diagnosis.[2]

References

  1. National Cancer Intelligence Network (NCIN). One, Five and Ten Year Cancer Prevalence by Cancer Network, UK, 2006. London: NCIN; 2010. 
  2. Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, et al. GLOBOCAN 2008 v1.2, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 10 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2010. Available from http://globocan.iarc.fr. Accessed May 2011.
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In 2011, 349 men were diagnosed with breast cancer in the UK. Among men, breast cancer accounts for less than 1% of cancer cases.[1-3]

Breast cancer incidence in males is strongly related to age. In the UK between 2009 and 2011, an average of 36% of male breast cancer cases were in men aged 75 years and over.[1-4]

Breast Cancer (C50), Average Number of New Cases per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates, Males, UK, 2009-2011

Breast cancer incidence rates for men have changed very little since the late 1970s in Great Britain.[1-3]

Breast Cancer (C50), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, Males, Great Britain, 1979-2011

The latest prevalence estimates for the UK show that around 1,700 men were still alive at the end of 2006, up to ten years after being diagnosed with breast cancer.[5]

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2013. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html.
  2. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, June 2013. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/CancerData/OnlineStatistics/
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, June 2013. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=51358
  4. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, May 2013. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp#605
  5. National Cancer Intelligence Network (NCIN). One, Five and Ten Year Cancer Prevalence by Cancer Network, UK, 2006. London: NCIN; 2010. 
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