Brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours incidence statistics

Cases

New cases of brain tumours, 2013, UK

Proportion of all cases

Percentage brain tumour is of total cancer cases, 2013, UK

 

Age

Age that almost 6 in 10 of brain tumour cases are diagnosed, 2011-2013, UK

 

Trend since 1970s

Malignant brain tumour incidence rates have increased since the late 1970s, GB

 

Brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours are the eighth most common cancer in the UK (2013), accounting for 3% of all new cases. They are the 10 most common cancers in males (3% of all male cases) and the eighth most common in females (3% of all female cases).[1-4]

In 2013, 10,624 new brain, other CNS and intracranial tumour cases were registered in the UK 5,164 (49%) in males and 5,460 (51%) in females, giving a male:female ratio of around 9:10.[1-4] The crude incidence rate shows that there are 16 new brain, other CNS and intracranial tumour cases for every 100,000 males in the UK and 17 for every 100,000 females.[1-4]

The European age-standardised Open a glossary item incidence rate (AS rate) is significantly lower in England compared with Wales, for both males and females. Rates are also significantly lower in Northern Ireland compared with England, Wales and Scotland for both sexes.[1-4] For females only, rates are significantly lower in Scotland compared with Wales. It is unknown whether this geographical variation is real or reflects differences in registration practices between the countries.

Brain, Other CNS and Intracranial Tumours (C70-C72, C75.1-C75.3, D32-D33, D35.2-D35.4, D42-D43, D44.3-D44.5), Number of New Cases, Crude and European Age-Standardised (AS) Incidence Rates per 100,000 Population, UK, 2013

England Wales Scotland Northern Ireland UK
Male Cases 4,312 311 464 77 5,164
Crude Rate 16.3 20.5 17.9 8.6 16.4
AS Rate 18.2 21.7 19.8 9.9 18.3
AS Rate - 95% LCL 17.7 19.3 18.0 7.7 17.8
AS Rate - 95% UCL 18.8 24.1 21.6 12.1 18.8
Female Cases 4,487 387 519 67 5,460
Crude Rate 16.4 24.7 18.9 7.2 16.8
AS Rate 16.9 24.0 18.9 7.8 17.2
AS Rate - 95% LCL 16.4 21.6 17.3 5.9 16.7
AS Rate - 95% UCL 17.4 26.4 20.5 9.7 17.6
Persons Cases 8,799 698 983 144 10,624
Crude Rate 16.3 22.6 18.5 7.9 16.6
AS Rate 17.5 23.0 19.3 8.9 17.7
AS Rate - 95% LCL 17.2 21.3 18.1 7.4 17.4
AS Rate - 95% UCL 17.9 24.7 20.5 10.3 18.0

95% LCL and 95% UCL are the 95% lower and upper confidence limits Open a glossary item around the AS Rate Open a glossary item

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

Under-recording of brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours by cancer registries is possible, though there are presently no reliable data on the extent of this. Two small studies in the 1990s estimated that around 50% of brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours went unrecorded in UK cancer registries;[5,6] however, the situation is now thought to have improved.[7,8] Fatal and/or heavily-treated cases are more likely to be captured by cancer registries (because data on these cases appear in multiple systems to which the registries have access, including death records). Thus, it is likely that non-fatal or conservatively-treated cases represent the majority of any unrecorded tumours.[5] The National Brain Tumour Registry for England has been set up to provide more detailed and consistent information in the future.[8,9]

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/search/index.html?newquery=cancer+registrations
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, February 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk/officical-statistics-exel-files-of-trend
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, March 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/
  5. Pobereskin L. The Completeness Of Brain Tumour Registration In Devon And Cornwall. Eur J Epidemiol 2001;17(5):413-416.
  6. Counsell C, Collie D, Grant R. Limitations of using a cancer registry to identify incident primary intracranial tumours. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1997;63:94-97.
  7. Eastern Cancer Registry and Information Centre (ECRIC), National Brain Tumour Registry.  Personal communication, February 2013.
  8. Data were provided by UK Cancer Registry representatives on request, 2008.
  9. National Cancer Intelligence Unit (NCIN). Central Nervous System (CNS) Tumours – developing a national tumour registry. London: NCIN; 2011.
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Incidence of brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours is related to age, with the highest incidence rates overall being in older males and females. But in contrast to most cancer types, brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours also occur relatively frequently at younger ages.[1-4]

In the UK in 2011-2013, on average each year almost 6 in 10 (56%) cases were diagnosed in people aged 60 and over.[1-4]

Age-specific incidence rates remain relatively stable from infancy to around age 25-29, before increasing more sharply (particularly in males) with the highest rates in the 90+ age group. Incidence rates are significantly higher for males than for females aged between 55-59 and 80-84 (the gap is not significant in the other age groups) and this gap is widest at the ages of 70-74 when male:female ratio of age-specific incidence rates (to account for the different proportions of males to females in each age group) is around 12:10.[1-4]

Brain, Other CNS and Intracranial Tumours (C70-C72, C75.1-C75.3, D32-D33, D35.2-D35.4, D42-D43, D44.3-D44.5), Average Number of New Cases per Year and Age-Specific Incidence Rates, UK, 2011-2013

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/search/index.html?newquery=cancer+registrations
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, February 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk/officical-statistics-exel-files-of-trend
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, March 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/
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Brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours are classified according to different systems by different organisations, between which systems very broad parallels may be drawn. There is substantial heterogeneity within and between these broad groups, and data categorising brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours along these lines should be interpreted with caution.

Systems for Classification of Brain & CNS Tumours

Used by cancer registries generally Used by cancer clinicians generally
ICD-10 codes ICD-10 groups WHO Grade Aggressiveness
C70-C72 and C75.1-C75.3 Malignant (sometimes also known as invasive, or cancer) Few Grade I, most Grade II, almost all Grade III-IV More aggressive
D32-D33, D35.2-D35.4, D42-D43, and D44.3-D44.5 Benign, uncertain or unknown behaviour (sometimes also known as non-invasive) Almost all Grade I, few grade II, very few Grade III-IV Less aggressive

UK national data are mainly collected and reported by cancer registries using the WHO International Classification of Diseases, version 10 (ICD-10) Open a glossary item. ICD-10 codes can be grouped into either (i) malignant (or invasive, or C-codes) or (ii) benign and uncertain or unknown behaviour types (or non-invasive, or D-codes). While this division underestimates the complexity and diversity of these tumours – even ‘benign’ tumours can invade surrounding tissue to some degree, and can be fatal depending on their location and size – these groupings are the best available for UK national data, and so are typically used by organisations which present national-level statistics. ICD-10 codes can also be mapped, very broadly, onto the WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System, which is used by clinicians when diagnosing tumours and planning treatment; under this system tumours are assigned WHO Grades ranging from I-IV, with I being the least malignant and IV the most.[1] Clinicians may also describe tumours according to their aggressiveness, or how quickly they are growing. In coming years, all UK cancer registries will code tumours according to the WHO International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, 3rd Edition (ICD-O-3), meaning it may be possible to present UK national data by grade in the future.[2]

In 2012 in the UK, 52% of brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours were malignant and 48% were benign or of uncertain or unknown behaviour. Tumour behaviour varies markedly between the sexes; malignant brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours were more common in males (male:female ratio around 14:10), while benign and uncertain or unknown behaviour tumours were more common in females (male:female ratio around 6:10).[3-6]

Incidence of malignant tumours increases rapidly from around age 45-49, peaks in females aged 75-79 and in males aged 80-84, and subsequently drops. Incidence of benign and uncertain or unknown behaviour tumours increases steadily from young adulthood then rises more rapidly in older age groups.[3-6]

Brain, Other CNS and Intracranial Tumours, Malignant (C70-C72, C75.1-C75.3) and Benign and Uncertain or Unknown Behaviour (D32-D33, D35.2-D35.4, D42-D43, D44.3-D44.5), Age-Specific Incidence Rates, UK, 2010-2012

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976

.

References

  1. Louis DN, Ohgaki H, Wiestler OD, Cavenee WK (eds). WHO Classification of tumours of the central nervous system. 4th ed. Lyon, France: IARC, 2007.
  2. Eastern Cancer Registry and Information Centre (ECRIC), National Brain Tumour Registry.  Personal communication, February 2013.
  3. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/search/index.html?newquery=cancer+registrations
  4. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp
  5. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242pid=59080
  6. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/
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Malignant brain, other central nervous system (CNS) and intracranial tumour incidence rates have increased by 39% in Great Britain since the late 1970s.[1-3] The increase is similar for males and females.

For males, European age-standardised (AS) Open a glossary item incidence rates increased by 40% between 1979-1981 and 2011-2013. For females the rise has been similar, with rates increasing by 36% between 1979-1981 and 2011-2013.

Malignant Brain, Other CNS and Intracranial Tumours (C70-C72, C75.1-C75.3), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, Great Britain, 1979-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

Over the last decade in the UK (between 2002-2004 and 2011-2013), brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours (malignant, benign, and uncertain or unknown behaviour) incidence rates have increased by 9% for males and females combined, with a larger increase in females (12%) than males (5%).[1-4] The increases are larger for benign and uncertain or unknown behaviour tumours, than for malignant tumours.

Brain, Other CNS and Intracranial Tumours (C70-C72, C75.1-C75.3, D32-D33, D35.2-D35.4, D42-D43, D44.3-D44.5), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, UK, 1993-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

Brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours incidence trends reflect improvements in data collection and diagnostic capabilities.[5-10] Data on malignant tumours have been collected by UK cancer registries for many decades, but data on benign and uncertain or unknown behaviour tumours were not consistently collected until the early 2000s. This means trends starting before the early 2000s are not reliable for benign and uncertain or unknown behaviour tumours. 

Malignant brain, other CNS and intracranial tumour incidence rates have overall increased for most of the broad age groups in Great Britain since the late 1970s.[1-3]

The largest increases have been in people aged 80+, with European AS incidence rates increasing more than five-fold (441% increase) between 1979-1981 and 2011-2013.[1-3]

Malignant Brain, Other CNS and Intracranial Tumours (C70-C72, C75.1-C75.3), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates, by Age, Great Britain, 1979-2013

ASR calculated with ESP2013. Not comparable with ASRs calculated with ESP1976.

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/search/index.html?newquery=cancer+registrations
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, February 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wcisu.wales.nhs.uk/officical-statistics-exel-files-of-trend
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, March 2015. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/
  5. Data were provided by UK Cancer Registry representatives on request, 2008.
  6. European Network of Cancer Registries (ENCR). ENCR recommendations of the Working Group on Data Definitions Brain and Central Nervous System Tumours. 2009.
  7. Arora RS, Alston RD, Eden TOB, et al. Are reported increases in incidence of primary CNS tumours real? An analysis of longitudinal trends in England, 1979–2003. Eur J Cancer 2010; 46(9):1607–1616.
  8. Caldarella A, Crocetti E, Paci E. Is the incidence of brain tumors really increasing? A population-based analysis from a cancer registry. J Neuro-Oncol 2011;104(2):589-594.
  9. Central Nervous System Cancers Site-Specific Clinical Reference Group. Personal communication, February 2013.
  10. Data were provided by Eastern Cancer Registry and Information Centre (ECRIC) National Brain Tumour Registry on request, February 2013. Similar data can be found here: http://www.nbtr.nhs.uk/index.html 
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Most malignant brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours occur in the brain, with much smaller proportions in the meninges, endocrine glands Open a glossary item and other parts of the CNS (2010-2012).[1-4]  The proportion of cases in each part is similar between males and females.[1-4]

Malignant Brain, Other CNS and Intracranial Tumours (C70-C72, C75.1-C75.3), Percentage Distribution of Cases Diagnosed By Anatomical Site, by Sex, UK, 2010-2012

Cases and percentages may not sum due to rounding
 

In males, the largest proportion of benign brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours occur in the meninges, with  smaller proportions in the endocrine glands, brain and other parts of the CNS (2010-2012).[1-4

In females, most benign brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours occur in the meninges, with much smaller proportions in the endocrine glands, brain and other parts of the CNS (2010-2012).[1-4

The proportions of cases in the endocrine glands, brain and other CNS are higher in males (27.9%, 20.8% and 16.6%, respectively) than females (16.7%, 13.6% and 11.3%, respectively). In the meninges, the proportion is higher in females (58.4%) than in males (34.7%).[1-4]

A moderate proportion of cases did not have the specific site of the brain, other CNS and intracranial tumour recorded in cancer registry data, or overlapped more than one part.[1-4]

Benign Brain, Other CNS and Intracranial Tumours (D32-D33, D35.2-D35.4, D42-D43, D44.3-D44.5), Percentage Distribution of Cases Diagnosed By Anatomical Site, by Sex, UK, 2010-2012

Cases and percentages may not sum due to rounding

 

See also

Find out more about the counting and coding of this data

Brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours incidence by tumour aggressiveness

Brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours incidence by morphology

References

  1. Data were provided by the Office for National Statistics on request, July 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/vsob1/cancer-statistics-registrations--england--series-mb1-/index.html.
  2. Data were provided by ISD Scotland on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Cancer/Publications/index.asp.
  3. Data were provided by the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit on request, April 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.wales.nhs.uk/sites3/page.cfm?orgid=242&pid=59080.
  4. Data were provided by the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry on request, June 2014. Similar data can be found here: http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/nicr/CancerInformation/.
Last reviewed:

There are over 130 different types of tumour which can occur in the brain, other parts of the CNS or intracranial region.[1] The most common morphological types of brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours recorded in England in 2006-2010 were astrocytomas (34%) and meningiomas (21%).[2] Around 80% of astrocytomas were the very aggressive subtype glioblastoma (WHO Grade IV). Almost all of the meningiomas were less aggressive (WHO Grade I). Most of the pituitary tumours were adenomas. There were 14% of brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours recorded by registries as unknown or unspecified type; in many cases this may be because pathological samples (required to ascertain cell type) could not be obtained due to the location of the tumour.

Brain, Other CNS and Intracranial Tumours, by Morphology, Proportion of Cases, England, 2006-2010

Morphological Group % of all Brain, other CNS and intracranial tumour cases % of these more aggressive % of these less aggressive
Astrocytomas 34% 95% 5%
Meningiomas 21% 8% 92%
Pituitary 8% 1-2% 98-99%
Gliomas unspecified 6% * *
Cranial and paraspinal nerve tumours 6% 5% 95%
Oligodendrogliomas 3% * *
Ependymomas 2% 75% 25%
Embryonal tumours 2% 100% 0%
Other tumour types 5% * *
Unknown or unspecified type 14% * *

*Heterogeneous groups cannot be broken down by levels of aggressiveness. Data supplied by Eastern Cancer Registry and Information Centre (ECRIC) from the National Brain Tumour Registry.[2]

References

  1. Louis DN, Ohgaki H, Wiestler OD, Cavenee WK (eds). WHO Classification of tumours of the central nervous system. 4th ed. Lyon, France: IARC, 2007.
  2. Eastern Cancer Registry and Information Centre (ECRIC), National Brain Tumour Registry.  Personal communication, February 2013.
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The lifetime risk of developing a brain, other CNS or intracranial tumour is 1 in 74 for men and 1 in 73 for women, in 2012 in the UK.[1]

The lifetime risk for brain, other CNS or intracranial tumours has been calculated to account for the possibility that someone can have more than one diagnosis of brain, other CNS or intracranial tumours over the course of their lifetime (‘Adjusted for Multiple Primaries’ (AMP) method).[2]

References

  1. Lifetime risk estimates calculated by the Statistical Information Team at Cancer Research UK. Based on data provided by the Office of National Statistics, ISD Scotland, the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit and the Northern Ireland Cancer Registry, on request, December 2013 to July 2014.
  2. Sasieni PD, Shelton J, Ormiston-Smith N, et al. What is the lifetime risk of developing cancer?: The effect of adjusting for multiple primaries. Br J Cancer, 2011. 105(3): p. 460-5.
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Brain and other CNS cancer (C70-C72 only) are the 17th most common cancer type in Europe, with around 57,100 new cases diagnosed in 2012 (2% of the total). In Europe (2012), the highest World age-standardised Open a glossary item incidence rates for brain and other CNS cancer are in Albania for men and Sweden for women; the lowest rates are in Cyprus for men and Luxembourg for women. UK incidence rates of brain and other CNS cancer are estimated to the 20th lowest in males in Europe, and 11th lowest in females.[1] These data are broadly in line with Europe-specific data available elsewhere.[2]

Brain and other CNS cancer (C70-C72 only) are the 17th most common cancer type worldwide, with more than 256,000 new cases diagnosed in 2012 (2% of the total). Incidence rates for brain and other CNS cancer are highest in Northern Europe and lowest in Western Africa, but this partly reflects varying data quality worldwide.[1]

References

  1.  Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Ervik M, et al. GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 11 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2013. Available from: http://globocan.iarc.fr, accessed December 2013.
  2. Ferlay J, Steliarova-Foucher E, Lortet-Tieulent J, et al.Cancer incidence and mortality patterns in Europe: Estimates for 40 countries in 2012. European Journal of Cancer (2013) 49, 1374-1403.
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There are presently no reliable data on the incidence of secondary brain, other CNS and intracranial cancers – tumours which have metastasised (spread) to these sites from elsewhere in the body. In some patients, brain, other CNS and intracranial metastases may not manifest clinically in the patient’s lifetime, or a formal diagnosis may not be obtained if the patient is extremely unwell with their primary cancer. Therefore current estimates of the number of secondary tumours are thought to be conservative.[1] However, data collection is improving, and in coming years it should be possible to report national data for the number of cancers in the brain, other CNS and intracranial region which started elsewhere in the body.[2]

The best current estimate is that secondary brain cancers occur in at least 6% of all cancer patients, with marked variation by primary cancer site.[1] The proportion ranges from less than 1% of patients with thyroid, liver, stomach, prostate, uterine or ovarian cancers, to 20% of those with lung cancer.[1,3] Based on this estimate, metastatic brain tumours are thought to outnumber primary malignant brain tumours by at least three to one.[1]

References

  1. Davis FG, Dolecek TA, McCarthy BJ, et al. Toward determining the lifetime occurrence of metastatic brain tumors estimated from 2007 United States cancer incidence data. Neuro-Oncology 2012;14(9):1171-77.
  2. Eastern Cancer Registry and Information Centre (ECRIC), National Brain Tumour Registry.  Personal communication, February 2013.
  3. Barnholtz-Sloan JS, Sloan AE, et al. Incidence proportions of brain metastases in patients diagnosed (1973 to 2001) in the Metropolitan Detroit Cancer Surveillance System. J Clin Oncol 2004;22(14):2865-72.
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Age-standardised rates Open a glossary item for White males with brain cancer (ICD-10 C70-C72 only) range from 8.2 to 8.7 per 100,000. Rates for Asian males significantly lower, ranging from 4.0 to 6.5 per 100,000 and the rates for Black males are also significantly lower, ranging from 2.9 to 5.4 per 100,000. For females there is a similar pattern - the age-standardised rates for White females range from 5.3 to 5.6 per 100,000, and rates for Asian and Black females are also significantly lower, ranging from 2.4 to 4.3 per 100,000 and 2.1 to 4.1 per 100,000 respectively.[1]

Ranges are given because of the analysis methodology used to account for missing and unknown data. For brain and CNS cancer, 19,012 cases were identified; 17% had no known ethnicity.

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In the UK more than 9,700 people were still alive at the end of 2006, up to ten years after being diagnosed with a tumour in the brain, or other parts of the CNS (C70-C72).[1]

Brain and other parts of CNS (C70-C72), One-, Five- and Ten- Year Cancer Prevalence, UK, 31st December 2006

1 Year Prevalence 5 Year Prevalence 10 Year Prevalence
Male 1,448 3,633 5,456
Female 986 2,650 4,252
Persons 2,434 6,283 9,708

Worldwide, it is estimated that there were around 317,000 patients with these tumours were still alive in 2008, up to five years after their diagnosis of brain or other CNS tumour (C70-C72).[2]

References

  1. National Cancer Intelligence Network (NCIN). One, Five and Ten Year Cancer Prevalence by Cancer Network, UK, 2006. London: NCIN; 2010.
  2. Ferlay J, Shin HR, Bray F, et al. DM GLOBOCAN 2008 v1.2, Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: IARC CancerBase No. 10 [Internet]. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2010. Available from http://globocan.iarc.fr. Accessed May 2011.
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There is evidence for a small association between brain, other CNS and intracranial tumour incidence and deprivation for females in England. This is one of the few cancers where incidence rates are lower for more deprived females. There is no evidence for an association between the incidence of brain, other CNS and intracranial tumours and deprivation for males.[1]

England-wide data for 2006-2010 show European age-standardised Open a glossary item incidence rates are 12% lower for females living in the most deprived areas compared with the least deprived, while for males the rates are similar for those living in the least and most deprived areas.[1]

Brain, Other CNS and Intracranial Tumours (C70-C72,C751-3,D32-D33,D352-4,D42-D43,D443-5), European Age-Standardised Incidence Rates by Deprivation Quintile, England, 2006-2010

The estimated deprivation gradient in brain, CNS and intracranial tumour incidence between people living in the most and least deprived areas in England has not changed in the period 1996-2010.[1]

Last reviewed:

Cancer Statistics Explained

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