Find out about tumour, node and metastasis (TNM) staging and treatment.
The stage of a cancer tells you how big it is and how far it’s spread. It helps your doctor decide which treatment you need.
Your scans will give some information about the stage of your cancer, but your doctor may not be able to tell you the exact stage until you have surgery.
The TNM staging system is the most common way that doctors stage stomach cancer. TNM stands for Tumour, Node, Metastasis.
Doctors may also use a number staging system.
Tumour describes the size of the tumour.
There are 4 main stages of tumour size in stomach cancer. TX means the main tumour (primary) cannot be assessed and T0 means there’s no sign of cancer:
T1 means the tumour has started to grow into the wall of the stomach. It’s divided into T1a and T1b:
- T1a means the tumour is within the inner layers of the stomach (the mucosa)
- T1b means the tumour has grown through the mucosa and into a layer of supportive tissue called the submucosa
T2 means the tumour has grown into the muscle layer of the stomach
T3 means the tumour has grown into the outer lining of the stomach
T4 means that the tumour has grown through the outer lining of the stomach. It’s divided into T4a and T4b:
- T4a means the tumour has broken through the outer lining of the stomach wall
- T4b means the tumour has grown through the stomach wall and into other organs or body structures nearby such as the liver, food pipe (oeosphagus) or abdominal wall
Node in TNM means your lymph nodes which are a network of glands throughout the body, for example in your armpits, neck and groins. They drain away waste fluid, waste products and damaged cells, and contain cells that fight infection.
- NX means that the lymph nodes cannot be assessed
- N0 means there are no lymph nodes containing cancer cells
- N1 means there are cancer cells in 1 to 2 lymph nodes near to the stomach
- N2 means there are cancer cells in 3 to 6 nearby lymph nodes
- N3a means there are cancer cells in 7 to 15 nearby lymph nodes
- N3b means there are cancer cells in 16 or more nearby lymph nodes
Metastasis describes whether the cancer has spread to a different part of the body.
There are 2 stages of metastasis:
- M0 means the cancer has not spread to other organs
- M1 means the cancer has spread to other parts of the body
The stage of your cancer helps your doctor to decide what treatment you need. Treatment also depends on:
- your type of cancer (the type of cells the cancer started in)
- where the cancer is in your stomach
- other health conditions
Treatment may include:
- surgery - to remove part or all your stomach
- biological therapy, for example trastuzumab (Herceptin)
- symptom control treatment
Chemotherapy in combination with radiotherapy (chemoradiotherapy) is sometimes a treatment to shrink stomach cancer. It is not a common treatment.
You may have treatment as part of a clinical trial.