Secondary lung cancer is when a cancer that started somewhere else in the body has spread to the lung.
Where a cancer starts is called the primary cancer. This is when some cancer cells break away from the primary cancer. They can move through the bloodstream or lymph system to another part of the body to form a new tumour. This is called a secondary cancer. Secondary cancers are also called metastases (pronounced met-ass-ta-sees).
The secondary cancer is made of the same type of cells as the primary cancer.
If your cancer started in your bowel and has spread to your lung, the areas of cancer in the lung are made up of bowel cancer cells.
This is different from having a cancer that first started in the lung (a primary lung cancer). In that case, the cancer is made up of lung cells that have become cancerous. This is important because the primary cancer tells your doctor which type of treatment you need.
Which cancers spread to the lungs
Any cancer can spread to the lung. The most common cancers to do so are:
- breast cancer
- bowel cancer
- kidney cancer
- testicular cancer
- bladder cancer
- melanoma skin cancer
- bone cancer
- soft tissue sarcomas
- head and neck cancer
Symptoms of secondary lung cancer
Symptoms of secondary lung cancer might include:
- a cough that doesn’t go away
- shortness of breath
- ongoing chest infections
- weight loss
- coughing up blood
- chest pain
A build up of fluid between the lung and chest wall (pleural effusion) stops the lungs from expanding fully. When you breathe in it can cause shortness of breath, achy chest, discomfort and heaviness.
Remember, these symptoms can also be due to other more common conditions. If you have any of them tell your doctor so that they can check them out.
Tests for secondary lung cancer
There are different tests you might need to diagnose secondary lung cancer. You may have one or more of the following:
- chest X-ray
- CT scan
- PET scan
- PET-CT scan
Some people may not be able to have treatment for their cancer because they are too unwell. So the aim of treatment is usually to control the cancer and your symptoms. Secondary lung cancer can’t usually be cured. But treatment can control it for some time and help prevent problems developing.
Most people worry about their outlook (prognosis) when they have a secondary cancer. Your individual outlook depends on many factors including whether the cancer has spread to more than one part of your body, how quickly it is growing and how it responds to treatment.
It is usually difficult to predict and this uncertainty can be hard to deal with. Speak to your doctor who can give you more information about your outlook.