Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) risks and causes | Cancer Research UK
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Chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) risks and causes

Men and women discussing Chronic myeloid leukaemia

This page tells you about chronic myeloid leukaemia and its risk factors. There is information about

 

A quick guide to what's on this page

How common is CML?

CML is quite a rare condition. The vast majority of cases are in adults. It is most common in older age. And it is slightly more common in men than women.

Risk factors for CML

As people get older their risk of CML increases. But the risk is still small because CML is a rare condition. If you had radiotherapy for another cancer in the past, this could increase your risk of developing CML. But this risk is very small, compared with the risk to your health from the cancer you had. People who have low immunity, after an organ transplant or due to HIV or AIDS, have an increased risk of CML. Long term inflammation of the bowel, such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease, can also increase the risk. Other factors such as being overweight can slightly increase CML risk.

 

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How common chronic myeloid leukaemia is

About 8, 600 people are diagnosed with leukaemia each year in the UK. Just under 700 of these have CML. So it is quite a rare condition. It is more common in men than women.

 

Risk factors for CML

We don't know the cause of most cases of leukaemia but there are some factors that may increase your risk. Anything that increases your risk of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Different cancers have different risk factors. This page discusses the risk factors for CML. Even if you have one or more of the risk factors below, it does not mean that you will definitely get CML.

CML is slightly more common in men than women. As people get older their risk of CML increases but as CML is rare the risk is still small.

 

Radiation

We know that radiation can increase risk to some extent because atomic bomb survivors had an increased risk of leukaemia. A 20 year study has followed up workers who helped clean up after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. It shows that even at low doses of radiation there is an increased risk of all types of leukaemia. 

If you have had radiotherapy for another cancer in the past, this could increase your risk of developing CML. But this risk is very small, compared to the benefit of the radiotherapy in treating the cancer.

 

Low immunity

An analysis of published studies has shown that people with low immunity due to HIV or AIDS are 3 times more likely to develop leukaemia than the general population. People who take drugs that lower their immunity after an organ transplant are twice as likely to develop leukaemia.

 

Ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease

Various studies have shown that people with inflammatory bowel conditions, such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease, have a higher risk of chronic myeloid leukaemia compared to the general population.

 

Using pesticides at work

A review looked at published evidence for men exposed to pesticides as part of their work (for example, farmers or agricultural workers). The review showed that the men had a 40% increase in their CML risk compared to the general population.

 

Benzene

Contact with a chemical called benzene for some years may increase CML risk. Benzene is one of the chemicals in petrol. It is also a solvent used in the rubber industry. But most people in the UK wouldn't come into contact with enough benzene for it to increase their risk at all.

 

Body weight

A combined review of 4 previously published studies showed that the risk of CML is increased by about a quarter for people who are overweight or obese, compared to people with a healthy bodyweight.

 

Electromagnetic fields

Electromagnetic fields are often talked about as a possible risk factor but they probably do not increase the risk of chronic myeloid leukaemia. We are all exposed to electromagnetic radiation. It is all around us. Some research has suggested this might be a risk factor for leukaemia. But no increase in the risk of CML has ever been found in adults exposed to the normal background levels of electromagnetic fields in their own homes.

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Updated: 11 November 2014